Schillers Rezension - Über Bürgers Gedichte! (German Edition)
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Bothe Bode , Friedrich Heinrich — : Classical philologist, writer, translator. Schoolmate of Ludwig Tieck in Berlin. Studied classical philology in Halle, then subsequently worked as an independent scholar in Berlin, Heidelberg, Mannheim, Konstanz, and Leipzig. Translated and published classical authors from Greek and Latin Pindar , Euripides twice, ff. Because he translated many of these works merely for much-needed money, and because his critical methods were often rather arbitrary, his reputation as a critic was not always the best.
Bothe and Ludwig Tieck. Secondary education at the famous Schulpforta. After studying theology and philosophy in Leipzig, he spent several years as a private tutor before becoming director of the Gymnasium in Guben in , then in Bautzen in , and in Weimar in , where he also became a senior consistory official in charge of school affairs. Successful and respected school administrator. Initially quite an admirer of Caroline after she and Wilhelm Schlegel moved to Jena in After falling out with Johann Gottfried Herder as well, he moved to Dresden in , where he had similar problems with the writer Kleist.
Portrait: frontispiece to K. Major work was the Geschichte der Poesie und Beredsamkeit seit dem Ende des Jahrhunderts 12 vols. Intended for the priesthood, studied at the Academy of Maria Theresia in Vienna and later became canon in Hildesheim and Paderborn. Although Friedrich Moritz von Brabeck was quite cultured and possessed unquestionable taste, he could be imprudent in practical matters. Founded the Chalcographic Society in Dessau in , which he intended to promote artistic taste in Germany and beyond contacts were even made with America through the copying and dissemination of high-quality art works.
Brachmann, Louise Luise — : Poet, inspired by Friedrich von Hardenberg in Wiessenfels, with whose sister, Sidonie, she enjoyed an extremely warm friendship. Hardenberg introduced her to Schiller, who published several of her pieces in Die Horen and his Musen-Almanach , After subsequent disappointments, she committed suicide in the Saale River.
Portrait by the Viennese Leopold Kupelwieser. Bradshaw, George —53 : English printer of railway tables that he developed into a series of guides. From in Parliament though only till May , later in the House of Lords. Considered one of the most beautiful princesses of her time, indeed being extolled by Casanova as the most beautiful in Germany. Although she and Friedrich II had no children of their own, in she as stepmother arranged a reconciliation between him and his three sons from his first marriage. Generally viewed as an influential voice in the development of conservative thinking in Germany during the period of the French Revolution.
Also an acquaintance of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. From wrote numerous plays, often with roles for his wife, Esther Charlotte. Wrote the libretto for the first melodrama in Germany, Ariadne auf Naxos ; music by Georg Anton Benda , a quite successful theater piece in its day. From secretary of the Prussian embassy in Rome, but quickly detoured into a scholarly edition of Aristotles undertaken by the Berlin Academy. From professor in Bonn, from accompanied King Otto to Greece for two-and-a-half years, returning then to Bonn. Brandis, Joachim Dietrich — : Physician at the spa Bad Driburg, from professor of medicine in Kiel, from Konferenzrath there.
From married to a princess of Hannover but later lived with his mistress. Commanded the Prussian and Austrian troops during the First War of Coalition, issuing the provocative manifest threatening to bomb Paris should the royal family be violated, which merely incited the storming of the Tuilieries and eventually the end of the French monarchy itself.
Joined the Prussian army in , participated in the campaign against France in , from a general major. Participated in the battles of Jena and Auerstedt in Because Napoleon dissolved the Duchy of Braunschweig, Friedrich Wilhelm retired to his newly inherited estate in Oels in Silesia in Participated in plans against Napoleon and created a corps under Austrian auspices at his own cost that during , and without Austrian support, enjoyed surprising success in north Germany before shipping over to England.
In December he returned triumphantly to Braunschweig as its duke. Brawe, Sophie Ernestine Amalie? Breitenstein Breidenstein , Friederike Sophie Charlotte von dates unknown : Woman in Marburg who assisted Caroline during the final illness of her daughter Therese in December along with Frau von Malsburg, the latter possibly her sister or sister-in-law.
This woman was likely the aunt of Charlotte von Urff, whom Caroline mentions in letter Bremer, Benedix —16 June i. After eloping on 20 August , from 21 August married to Clemens Brentano. They later divorced, and she remarried and lived for a time in Paris, expressing a desire to accompany Napoleon to St. Helena; committed suicide in Frankfurt by drowning.
Brother of Bettina von Arnim. Educated in various boarding schools, he resisted entering the family business, studying instead in Jena —, where he had contact with the Schlegels, Fichte, and Tieck, as well as Sophie Mereau , whom he married in Published the eccentric novel Godwi in In Heidelberg was one of the members constituting the Heidelberg Romantics, publishing a collection of folk songs with Arnim, Des Knaben Wunderhorn —8 and himself publishing the play Ponce de Leon His wife Sophie died in From 17 April married to Friedrich Karl von Savigny.
Bretzner, Christoph Friedrich — : A mercantile bookkeeper by profession, Bretzner was a prolific if minor writer of plays and novels. Various plays published between and criticized the imitation of the nobility on the part of social climbers e. Many of his plays were quite popular in their use of the vernacular and their satirical look at current events and fashion. She married Breyer in The couple had a son and a daughter.
The result was that he himself fell ill, then his wife as well along with a friend who was visiting. Breyer died twelve days after his friend, on 28 April , only 46 years old. From , and influenced by the French Revolution, he studied history and philosophy in Jena, where he became acquainted with Fichte. Passed his Habilitation in and from was an associate professor of history. Appointed full professor in history and statistics in Landshut in From married to his cousin, Friederike Breyer , a native of Stuttgart.
Published works on Bavarian history and universal history as well as a history of the Thirty Years War Studied in Halle, where he switched from theology to law. Lived —97 in Berlin first as a legation secretary, then as Swedish envoy, later in Paris and London.
Also an acquaintance of Goethe, Schiller, and Wilhelm von Humboldt. Returned to Berlin —7, moving to Stockholm in , where, having fallen from official favor, he worked as a general legal advisor for Sweden. The complete texts of these missives along with several previously unpublished are found in KFSA Brissot, Jacques Pierre 15 January — 31 October : Leading member of the Girondist movement whose members were also called Brissotins during the French Revolution. After falling from favor, he was guillotined on 31 October Brizzi, Antonio — : Tenor, native of Bologna, where he also studied.
Debuted in in Italy, including Milan, from enjoyed a strong career in Italian theaters, from at the Italian opera in Vienna till as guest performer , from till first tenor in Munich till his retirement. Also celebrated after performances in Weimar. Allegedly had a range of three octaves. Taught after Brown, John —88 : Scottish physician. Studied theology in Edinburgh but seems to have switched to medicine in From about his public lectures contained vigorous attacks on all preceding systems of medicine. In he expaounded his own, or as it was then called the Brownian or Brunonian, theory of medicine, which views and treats diseases as caused by defective or excessive excitation, publishing these findings in his treatise Elementa medicinae.
In he set out for London in the hope of bettering his fortunes, but died there of apoplexy in Portrait by Donaldson; U. Brugnatelli, Luigi —24 October : Italian chemist and philosopher of nature. A native of Pavia, from he was assistant to chemistry professor Scopoli at the university there, whom he succeeded in Daughter of the superintendent at St. Growing up among a circle of people whose admiration for Klopstock bordered on being a cult, she began to write poems in the Klopstockian style even as a child.
In she married the businessman and Danish consul in St. Petersburg Konstantin Brun. In she traveled to Switzerland and Rome for a time, publishing her travel memoirs in several different installments. Her friend Friedrich Matthisson, whose poetry influence her own, published a volume of her poems in She did not return permanently to Copenhagen until , dying there in Several of her poems extol the cause of Greek independence. Her diaries and travelogues also document numerous encounters she had with significant contemporaries.
Bruno, Giordano — : Italian Benedictine who developed a pantheistic philosophy for which he was condemned and burned at the stake in Rome in February Friederike seems to have married her cousin, also with the last name Buch, in late , who thereby extricated her from a difficult situation. The three moved to St. Buchan, William — : Scottish physician, practicing —78 in Edinburgh, then in London. Best known for his extremely popular book ca.
Portrait: engraving by R. Page, He later supplied written testimony concerning her treatment and the events surrounding her death. Bucholtz, Andreas Heinrich —71 : Theologian, writer. Studied theology and philosophy in Wittenberg and Rostock, occupied various educational positions, becoming professor of moral philosophy and the poetic arts in in Rinteln, in also of theology. From coadjutor in Braunschweig, from superintendent there. Became lady in waiting to Duchess Elisabeth Sophie von Saxony-Meiningen — in Coburg in , becoming intimate friends with her stepdaughter, Princess Luise Dorothea — She married the court administrative official Schack Hermann von Buchwald in but maintained her quarters in the castle.
Mother of Luise, first Countess of Werthern. Concerning Juliane Franziska von Buchwald in general cf. Buchwald, Reinhard — : Literary historian, worked with the Insel and Eugen Diederich publishers, later professor of German intellectual history in Heidelberg. A native of Wetzlar, became engaged in to Johann Christian Kestner , whom she married in Goethe met her in — before her marriage — near Wetzlar, where he was also working, and became infatuated with her, ultimately leaving Wetzlar, however, because of his disappointment at her engagement.
She later had twelve children with Kestner; after his death in and her children were placed in other families, she remained in touch with them. Portrait by J. Buffon, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Count —88 : French naturalist, also studied law and medicine, from curator of the royal gardens.
Composed a volume Histoire naturelle — some volumes appeared posthumously. Portrait: frontispiece to volume 1 of Natural History, General and Particular , trans. William Smellie, 9 vols. From to , she was an extremely successful member of the ensemble at the Viennese Burg Theater, initially covering primarily the roles of the female love lead and heroine, later the comical elder woman. Married the actor Joseph Koberwein in — The Berlinische musikalische Zeitung no. Herr Bullinger could have become a good singer had he undergone more methodical training.
But now it is probably too late. His unbalanced tonal quality, which has now become a habit, his incorrect sense of taste, and his lack of understanding of musical concepts are shortcomings that can no longer be so easily laid aside. Herr Bullinger seemed quite to disdain the public here, since he did not even consider it worth his while to memorize his roles that well. He made significant mistakes in almost every piece he sang, often even singing incorrect notes or remaining silent altogether; this insecurity generates a strong element of affectation that invariably accompanies all his singing.
From Westphalian not Hannoverian, Luise Wiedemann states minister of finance. Eventually lost her sight but still gave acting instructions and published poetry, prose, and plays. Slug ben 6d;ran! Jrieb' unb 9? Ssiftoria, 33ruber! S ie 2Beltgefd;id te ift bag 23eltgerid;t. SBem ban! Dtc Kiinftler. Wit taufenb 5lrdf ten auf if;n gielten — no 60 ftanb bie Sd;5pfunc3 bor bem 2Bilben. Dk Kunftlcr. SIber fin! Qlut attein! Den 53Iic! Die 3bcare. Ictcrtc Bilb 3u Sats, 73 2Bo ein i erfcf lciert 53i b bon 9f?
Dag I intcr biefem 6d;leicr firf berbirgt? Rid t in 5l::rdnen fcf mi 5t er f in; 40 6elbft beg Sebeng. Snger hjirb um if n, 9? Dcr Spajiergang. Ucf aHein? Steure, mutiger Segler! Smmer, immer nad 2Beft! Majestas populi. Serftanb unb? So i[t rt ir! Klage ber Ceres. Unb er! Dcr Saucier. Dcr Hing bcs poIyFrates. Unb troftlog irrt er an Uferg 9? Unb gertjinnt bag Ufer unb eilet fort Unb ban! Fulgura frango. Unb n ie ber 5! Unb ein ebler SSol! Bweite SJariation. Not in G. See note. After G 6 2Benn bcr finftre Drhiy bidi bcr[rf Iingt?
After i?. In 2d ed. Not in G, but given by Korner After A. InG II, G II, 1S03 omits all but the first and seventh stanzas. G omits 1. After Th. G omits subtitle and 1. After G II. Gh omits Qlpx through- out. Th After facsimile of MS. B omits 1, as unauthentic. After 7. S er ben 2 o n n r e r felbft bejtrang.
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S3urgcr beg Dlt? TM begins sections at , , To the same, Nov. In the following album verses written by Schiller, March 28, see Otto Harnack, Die klassische Asthetik der Deutschen, facsimile frontispiece and p. IG, , and Schiller's answer, Jan. After G 2d ed. After G. Xic 3;beale. Humboldt's let- ter, Sept. SlBer in! After G, 2d ed. Humboldt's letter, Oct. G 1st ed. After F. Not in G, but included by KOrner After MA.
Not in G, but included by Komer. Majestas Populi. No title in MS. Variants in MS. Not in?. MA MS. After Gh. MA omits last stanza. In MA and Wallenstein last two lines of each stanza repeated as chorus. After 42, added for a later performance of Wallenstein, pub. Gh omits sub- title Sallabc. MA Gist ed. Gh omits subtitle Sallabe; MA gives S'iomanje in table of con- tents. SiJgerlicbrfjen title in MS. After Tell. First pub. The influence of Haller is no less evident. Like Haller and unlike lOopstock, Schiller here uses rhyme. Bo ftirbt cin.
So Weltrich, p. Parenthesis, cf. Cf No. Haller, Morgenjedanken, llf. Holty, Elegie auf ein Landmddchen, 43f. I, ; Jonas, p. But possibly the sense is that of Empfindungcn der Dank- barkeit , 1, 1. Such "im- pure" rhymes are due to the neutral similarity of these vowel sounds in Schiller's Swabian dialect, in which they are strongly nasalized.
Goethe's transl. This antithetical scale, from infinite to infinitesimal, is Klopstockian, as in Die Fruhlingsfeier, Die Gestirne; but Schiller carries the infinitesimal even further, to the infusoria of 1. Klopstock, Die Zukunft, 1. Tha dash for tut'g understood; cf. Jitm CoS, compared with the praise. Supply 2Sirb.
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Revelation, XXII, 5. The dash doubtless stands for Schubart, who had just begun his ten years' political imprisonment, and whom Haug dared not name. Hatred of tyranny is a characteristic expression of the humani- tarian and democratic tendencies of the 18th century; it is particularly violent in the young Schiller, as in Klopstock, the poets of the ''G5ttinger Hain", and the Storm and Stress men; contrast the positive political ideal of Schiller's Posa, Don Karlos, III, Sc.
The stanza is Horace's third Asclepiadean, often used by Klopstock. See under No. Same words, Klopstock, Messias, II, Klopstock and Fr. Stolberg also have 2:rdume flattern. Klopstock, Fiir den Konig, 19f. The poets of earlier date, such as Opitz and Brockes, revelled in descriptions of bloodthirsty tyranny. Jlannfcf aft jur Sd? Matthew, XXIV, 29, the stars falling from heaven as a sign of the judgment-day.
Boumen, to roll, a favorite word; cf. With this passage cf. See Chr. Jeep, Neue Jbb. Rauher, III, Sc. For the passage, cf. Haller, jbcr die Ewigkeit, 69f. Articles omitted metri causa, as with Meteor, 1. ShTUcnan, cf. In Klopstock's Messias, II, f. Iblnffcn for crblaffen; this use of simplex for compound is frequent in poetry. So Klopstock, Friedrich der Fiinffe, 5f. This was a favorite motif with Schubart and the other Swabians. These infinitives all depend on fannft, 1.
Cieucn, archaic as intr. Conclusion of the condition beginning 1. This tautological cumulation of superlatives is an exaggeration of a common device of Klopstock's. Recast in TJie subject may have been first suggested to Schiller by a passage, in H. Sturz's book on Rousseau see introd.
The situation is that of the famous passage in the Iliad, VI, f. It is probable that Schiller had no direct acquaintance with the Iliad in X, f. In a letter to Korner, May 27, , Schiller calls this one of the best of his early poems; he refers to it here as Hektor und Andromacha.
Set to music by Zumsteeg, Reichardt, and Schubert. VaH- ant: uimat;barn, imitation of the Homeric aaittoi; say irre- sistible or death-dealing; in his criticism of Voss' translation of Homer , A. Homer gives a vivid description of the bloody vengeance Achilles wreaks upon the Trojans for the death of Patroclus. Variant: Orcus, see No. Priam was Hector's father and king of Troy. Nadowessische Totenklage , 4, 21f. Jungfrau von Orleans , 1. This consolation is modern and un-Hellenic. In the Iliad, Hector's last words express his strong sense of duty and calm resignation to the decree of Fate.
Schiller's poem is rather in the sentimental and elegiac tone of Ossian, and the dialogue form is Ossianic, On the close similarity of motifs in this poem with passages in Hoven's translation from Ossian see ALG. VIII, f. In the 2d ed. The scene of the peasant leaders in Goethe's Gotz, Act V, is somewhat in this tone; even more so in the earlier Gottfried von Berlichingen, which Schiller could not have known, however, as it was not printed until after Goethe's death.
Schiller was doubtless influenced by the reck- less tone of some of Burger's poems and by folk-songs on famous robbers, such as Robin Hood, or "der bairische Hiesel", who was hanged in Sung to the melody of the famous student-song Gaudeamus igitur, and still to be heard as a popular song at German fairs, with many changes and in parody.
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Also set to music by Zum- steeg. Mercury was the god of commerce — and of theft. He is No. Supply mad;en after Unb. John, XIII, 1. Gunther D. One of several occasional poems written in this period, more or less to order; others are the Ode auf die gliick- liche Wiederkunft unsers gnddigsten Fiirsten, with fulsome flattery of the Duke of Wiirtemberg; the two poems entitled Empfin- dungen der Dankbarkeit, in which Schiller flatters the duke's favorite Franziska von Hohenheim; and the Totenfeier am Grahe Riegers, on the death of a general whose character the poet idealizes out of all resemblance.
The funeral elegy or Leichencarmen was one of the commonest forms of occasional poetry, which flourished especially in Wiirttemberg. Schiller himself, in the preface to his Anthologie Feb. This Leichenphantasie cf. June 13, , a fellow-pupil at the Academy, whose older brother was Schiller's intimate friend. In Schiller's report upon the char- acter of his fellow-students, written by order of the duke in Bell. I, 24 , Hoven is not spoken of in very complimentary terms; but he developed into one of the most promising students in the Academy, and was a great favorite with the duke.
Two days after Hoven's death, Schiller wrote a letter of condolence to the father, in the exag- gerated style of Die Rduber. The sombre Ossianic color and that of Holty's melancholy elegies is largely in evidence in this poem. Schiller himself was in a Werther mood at this time, as were many of his companions; one of them had just applied to him for an opiate, with a view to suicide.
Note the formal antithetical use of meter, solemn trochees and laughing dactyls, with which cf. The device of the funeral procession had been used before by Schubart; a similar device is the procession to the place of execution in Schiller's Kindesmorderin, Cronegk, Gunthers Schatten, If.
Schubart, Der Leichenzug. Hoven's father was a sturdy middle-aged man, but Schiller gives a conventional idealization of old age; cf. Schubart, Auf die Leiche eines Regenten, 49f. Supply miitet. Holty, Elegie auf ein Landmadchen, 17f. This sensuous note is characteristic of Schiller's youth. Holty, Elegie auf ein Landmadchen, 29f. Rhyme, cf. This magnifying ideaUzation of a schoolboy is in keeping with the hyperbolic tone of the poem as a whole. Hesperus, the evening star, personified by the Greeks as the son of Eos or Dawn; cf.
Rauher , I, Sc. These lines were engraved upon the monument that was erected just a century after Schiller's birth over Mozart's grave in Vienna. Walhalla is the Norse hall of the immortal slain. Schiller is recklessly inconsistent in his mixture of biblical, classical, and Germanic mythological conceptions. He justifies this confusio;i of relig- ious terms at the close of the essay Vher den Gebrauch des Chors in der Tragodie, prefacing Die Braut von Messina Goethe's Werther, Werke, 19, p. IV, f. Incoherent expression of a sudden reminiscence of friendship with the dead. The inapt rontett, for an embrace, is dragged in by the rhyme; so in Das Gehehnnis der Reminiszenz first form, ?
For another interpretation, see Jonas, p. On "Laura" see the Introduction. For the fundamental idea of the poem, cf. Schiller's address Die Tugend in ihren Folgen betrachtet Bell. I, 97f. The same thoughts reappear in the Theosophie des Julius ? The idea that harmony of soul is the fundamental law of the universe goes back to Leibniz. Schiller probably got this and other important elements of his early philosophy from a German translation of Adam Ferguson's Institutes of Moral Phi- losophy , which he used at the Academy.
Ferguson com- bines the ideas of "sympathy" and universal "benevolence" under the "law of society", which he compares in an extended parallel to the law of gravitation in the material world. Schiller probably was not familiar at this time with the ancient Greek conception of Eros as the harmonizing principle of the universe Empedocles , though his idea of "love" bears some similarity to this.
Goethe has a somewhat similar con- ception in a poem of his old age, Wiederfinden, in the Divan Werke, VI, f. Faust, 1. The word "love" in this poem is used in the ambiguous sense of "attraction", and so made to apply equally to the world of matter and that of spirit; and this same principle is made to cover the idea that opposites attract each other 1. SBirBel, for the force of gravitation or mutual attraction that sets the planets "whirling". Wieland, Lobgesang auf die Liebe, 12f. Possibly in the sense of "heavenly bodies.
Arachnean iveb, see Classical Dictionary under Arachne. Illustrations of the reign of love — here in the sense of sympathy — in the realm of the emotions. Joy is drawn to sorrow, hope to despair, rapture SBoIIuft to melancholy. The eyes delivered of their golden children, i. The same conceit in Melancholic an Laura , 4f. The Eumenides, "the kindly ones", euphemism for the Erinyes or Furies, were described as having serpents entwined in their hair. Proverbs, XVI, Young, Epistle to Mr. Pope, I: With fame, in just proportion, envy grows.
Epistle of James, I, Saturn is identified with Father Time. When time blends with eternity, the world will bo at an end. Sturz, Denkwilrdigkeiten von J. Rousseau, , from which Schiller got the first suggestion of the subject of his Fiesko, was also an important source of this poem. For a similar expression in an elegy by K. Reinhard, whose acquaintance Schiller made in , see Weltrich, p.
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Jacobi, An J. Schiller's later judgment of Rousseau, tJber naive und sentimentalische Dichtung, Bell. Rousseau died July 2, , and was buried on the estate of his last patron, the Marquis de Girardin, at Ermenonville; in his remains were solemnly transported to the Pantheon at Paris; twenty years later, at the time of the Restoration, the mob desecrated the tombs of both Rousseau and Voltaire and threw their bones upon a refuse-dump. The thought is that countries, or cities, will yet fight for the honor of claiming Rousseau as their son.
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Subject of fanb is the antecedent of ben, i. They who presume to judge the sage are but spirit-slag No. The figures are sadly mixed. Rauber I, Sc. They are but "missing links" between beast and man, tags on the outskirts of humanity; cf. Note that Schiller is not thinking of an unbroken evolutionary continuity. The Garonne has to do service here for the sake of the rhyme, which also occurs in Wieland's Oberon, 1.
Stupidity makes Rousseau responsible for the ills of France, as superstition attributes pestilence and war to a comet. It must have been in a dream or a fever-fancy that Fate made Rousseau a Frenchman.
The old wound of intolerance and persecution. Sturz in his Denkwilrdigkeiten gives this comparison with Socrates. The ideal of "humanity" is the highest to Herder, Goethe, and Schiller, as well as to Lessing. For this whole passage on true and false religion, cf. The deadly basilisk also in No. Sturz in his DenkwurdigkeUen made much of the persecution of Rousseau by clerical hatred. Evidently the 18th century in general is meant. Boni- face VIII.
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The 18th jubilee was celebrated in , but 1. Rauher , IV, Sc. The metaphor gets absurdly mixed by the end of the stanza. Two of the three dragon's heads are emphasized by spacing, 1. Goethe's Jahrmarktsfest von Plunder sweilern, at the close, and Max Herrmann's monograph on this poem, Berlin, Free rhythms, with an occasional rhyme. Note the almost regular increase in the length of the indented sections.
Rudolf Hildebrand ZDU. Caesar's "The die is cast" quoted from Menander , which Ulrich von Hutten adopted as his device: jacta est alea. Fiesko, stage version, V, Sc. Rauher, V, Sc. Kahale und Liebe , II, Sc. Rciuber, II, Sc. The figure is taken from wrestling. Klopstock, Heinrich der Vogler, llf. Variant, cf. The stanza, the same as that of the Hymne an den Unendlichen ? To the two Minor Asclepiadean verses, one Pherecratean, and one Glyconic verse of the original form cf. He also mingles the modern with the Greek and Latin principle by using rhyme, as Klopstock never does.
Compare with the conception of the universe in this poem Haller, Uher die Ewigkeit , and Goethe, Weltseele Schiller describes a less hyperbolic imaginary flight, over the earth, in Die Herrlichkeit der Schopfung ? For the thought of the poem, cf. Melancholie an Laura , 83f.
The passionate yearning to break the bonds of human limita- tion is characteristic of the Storm and Stress; the vague effort of the imagination to compass infinity inspired much of Klop- stock's and Haller's verse. XII, p. Rauher, stage version, V, Sc. Klopstock, Die beiden Musen, has: ju ben f rdnenbcn 3iclcn flicgcn. The traveller has passed beyond the stars of this system; 1. This line is metrically the worst in the poem. Parallelism with 1.
The two universe-travellers have the same object. In all the other stanzas the first two verses rhyme; hence Sanders suggests ZDS. Slblergebnnf, cf. But flies an eagle flight. Free rhythms, anapestic and iambic, with a sudden change to solemn trochees in the last "strophe", which also departs from the somewhat regular rhyme-order of the other divisions. For the emotional contrast between nature and the heart, cf. These details are inevitable.
Paradise Lost, V, Stars of morning, dew-drops, which the sun Impearls on every leaf and every flower. Such a Werther mood is quite char- acteristic of Schiller in Another curious personification; probably flijtc was dragged in by the rhyme. This is Schiller's first ballad. Count Eberhard II. Some of his adventures, including the story Schiller here tells, are related in Uhland's ballad-cycle Graf Eberhard der Rausche- hart.
Schiller's immediate source is not known. He probably became familiar with the subject through the historical lectures of J. This ballad is conceived as a "war song" subtitle , sung by Eberhard' s soldiers, as Gleim's Kriegslieder are sung by a Prus- sian grenadier. The meter is borrowed from Gleim, the same trotting iambics with abrupt masculine rhyme; the stanza differs only in the reduplication of the third line.
There was a revival of Swabian national pride at the time of this poem, and the writers of Wiirttemberg generally were zealously claiming recognition of their home land as the equal of proud Saxony in the produc- tion of great men and good poetry, 6f. Typical names of foreign rulers, perhaps with the thought of such individuals as Charles V. He was old enough at the time of his death to have a grandchild, but Schiller conceives of him as a youth, just as Goethe poetically rejuvenates Egmont, and Kleist the Prince of Homburg.
Schiller plays upon the word in 1. Conjcnnarfit, a violent hyperbole, the darkness made by the flying lances; cf. Uhland uses the word in his Eberhard ballad. The loud weeping of the enemy is rather far-fetched. Uhland makes use of this same saying from the chronicles. Gleim, Sicgeslied ruich der Schlacht bei Prag, 39f. Klopstock, Heinrich der Vogler, 37f. Burger, Lenore, 19f.
Fall of This note was added at the in- stance of the censor see letter to Goschen, Dec. See the Introduction. The situation of the poem is similar to that of the lovers in the story of Tristan and Isolde, and the poet in his present mood looks at the problem very much as Gottfried von Strassburg does in his Tristan written ab. The mood of this poem and of No. Ill, The talisman of moral enthusiasm that guarded his virtu- cus self-control. Only in the intoxication in which the vow was made can it be kept. Rauber, II, Sc. Twelfth Night, II, Sc. Matthew, V, 28, Her marriage is a crime of Chance or Fate, and abhor- rent to Nature.
The real sin is in her marriage vow to another than the man she loves, and to break this vow is therefore a "pious duty of repentance". Leisewitz, JuZiws von Tarent, 11, Sc. JQcruirfjtuiig, not merely death, but annihilation, as 1. Uovgelobcn, challenged. Klopstock, An Gott, 1. With bitter scorn, the words of Matthevv', VI, 2, 5, are here turned against God himself. In , Schiller is reported to have added the following words to a review of Resignation by Rapp, as a "key" to the poem printed in. IV, 48f. X, But in Schiller had not risen to the clearer moral and philosophic vision of these later utterances.
A similar change appears, in the long process of composing Don Karlos, in Schiller's attitude toward Karlos' love for the queen. An almost tragic No. See also Hauff , p. Et in Arcadia ego is tlie title of a painting by B. Schidone died , and appears as a legend in a landscape by N. Poussin d. Goethe uses it as the motto of his Italienische Reise : Slud id in 2trfabienl 6. The anciont conception of Death as the brother of Sleep, as a genius v. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format.
Metadata Show full item record. Publisher The University of Arizona. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation such as public display or performance of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author. His conceptions of drama, early dramatic practice, and the exogenesis of his own aesthetic theories crystallized his understanding of what it meant to be a poet. His study of human nature, I argue, greatly informed his poetic impulse. The serious play of creating poetic form—therewith cultivating the beautiful--became for him a joyous inspiration.
This study thus explores how Schiller sought to counteract the one-sided development of human beings through his presentations of dramatic characters and their interactions. Methodology Schiller dedicated himself to the creative activity of the light of his mind, his writings will guide my thoughts on this topic. Selected contributions to scholarship that relate to our topic are also consulted.