Strain Facies (Minerals, Rocks and Mountains)
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Geological Survey. During this period ophiolite, an obscure At first glance it may seem presumptuous to want to add yet another to the numerous books on Differential Thermal Analysis DT A. At first glance it may seem presumptuous to want to add yet another to the numerous books on My goal in writing this book was to provide an introduction to meteorite science and a handbook on meteorite classification. Insofar as I succeeded it should prove useful both to the practicing professional and to university students at the upper-division and graduate levels.
I originally intended the book to be nearly twice as long. The second My goal in writing this book was to provide an introduction to meteorite science and a handbook on The stability relations among sedimentary carbonate minerals are now more or less well known.
Most other carbonate minerals of similar composition which are The stability The relationship between the chemical and mineralogical composition of igneous rocks is established as far as is possible. Petrographers will appreciate that this problem is extremely complex, particularly since this relationship forms The voluminous results arising from recent progress in pure and applied research increase the need for authoritative reviews but the standard scientific journals The issue of this translation will now make it accessible to a much wider circle of readers.
The years since first Toggle navigation. New to eBooks.
Minerals-Rocks And Mountains Series. Filter Results. Exactly what they mean is still not settled, but they may not represent the kind of crustal rocks that we know today.
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Hornfels is a tough, fine-grained rock that is made by contact metamorphism where magma bakes and recrystallizes the surrounding rocks. Note how it breaks across the original bedding. Marble is made by regional metamorphism of limestone or dolomite rock, causing their microscopic grains to combine into larger crystals. This type of metamorphic rock consists of recrystallized calcite in limestone or dolomite in dolomite rock.
In this hand specimen of Vermont marble, the crystals are small. For fine marble of the sort used in buildings and sculpture, the crystals are even smaller.
The color of marble can range from the purest white to black, ranging through the warmer colors in between depending on the other mineral impurities. Like other metamorphic rocks, marble has no fossils and any layering that appears in it probably does not correspond to the original bedding of the precursor limestone. Like limestone, marble tends to dissolve in acidic fluids.
It is quite durable in dry climates, as in the Mediterranean countries where ancient marble structures survive. Commercial stone dealers use different rules than geologists to distinguish limestone from marble. Migmatite is the same material as gneiss but brought close to melting by regional metamorphism so that the veins and layers of minerals became warped and mixed.
This type of metamorphic rock has been buried very deep and squeezed very hard. In many cases, the darker part of the rock consisting of biotite mica and hornblende has been intruded by veins of lighter rock consisting of quartz and feldspar. With its curling light and dark veins, migmatite can be very picturesque. Yet even with this extreme degree of metamorphism, the minerals are arranged in layers and the rock is clearly classified as metamorphic.
If mixing is even stronger than this, a migmatite can be hard to distinguish from granite. Because it isn't clear that true melting is involved, even at this degree of metamorphism, geologists use the word anatexis loss of texture instead. Mylonite forms along deeply buried fault surface by crushing and stretching of rocks under such heat and pressure that the minerals deform in a plastic way monetization. Phyllite is one step beyond slate in the chain of regional metamorphism. Unlike slate, phyllite has a definite sheen.
Whereas slate has a dull surface because its metamorphic minerals are extremely fine-grained, phyllite has a sheen from tiny grains of sericitic mica , graphite, chlorite and similar minerals. With further heat and pressure, the reflective grains grow more abundant and join each other. And whereas slate usually breaks in very flat sheets, phyllite tends to have a corrugated cleavage.
This rock has nearly all of its original sedimentary structure erased, although some of its clay minerals persist. Further metamorphism converts all of the clays into large grains of mica, along with quartz and feldspar. At that point, phyllite becomes schist. Quartzite is a tough stone composed mostly of quartz. It may be derived from sandstone or from chert by regional metamorphism. This metamorphic rock forms in two different ways. In the first way, sandstone or chert recrystallizes resulting in a metamorphic rock under the pressures and temperatures of deep burial.
Reading: Metamorphic Rocks
A quartzite in which all traces of the original grains and sedimentary structures are erased may also be called metaquartzite. This Las Vegas boulder is a metaquartzite. A quartzite that preserves some sedimentary features is best described as a metasandstone or metachert. The second method in which it forms involves sandstone at low pressures and temperatures, where circulating fluids fill the spaces between sand grains with silica cement.
This kind of quartzite, also called orthoquartzite , is considered a sedimentary rock, not a metamorphic rock because the original mineral grains are still there and bedding planes and other sedimentary structures are still evident. The traditional way to distinguish quartzite from sandstone is by viewing quartzite's fractures across or through the grains; sandstone splits between them. Schist is formed by regional metamorphism and has schistose fabric—it has coarse mineral grains and is fissile , splitting into thin layers.
Schist is a metamorphic rock that comes in almost infinite variety, but its main characteristic is hinted at in its name: Schist comes from the ancient Greek for "split," through Latin and French. It is formed by dynamic metamorphism at high temperatures and high pressures that aligns the grains of mica, hornblende, and other flat or elongated minerals into thin layers, or foliation. At least 50 percent of the mineral grains in schist are aligned this way less than 50 percent makes it gneiss.
The rock may or may not be actually deformed in the direction of the foliation, although a strong foliation probably is a sign of high strain. Schists are commonly described in terms of their predominant minerals. This specimen from Manhattan, for example, would be called a mica schist because the flat, shiny grains of mica are so abundant.
Other possibilities include blueschist glaucophane schist or amphibole schist. Serpentinite is composed of minerals of the serpentine group. It forms by regional metamorphism of deep-sea rocks from the oceanic mantle. It is common beneath the oceanic crust, where it forms by the alteration of the mantle rock peridotite. It is seldom seen on land except in rocks from subduction zones, where oceanic rocks may be preserved.
Types of Metamorphic Rocks
Most people call it serpentine SER-penteen or serpentine rock, but serpentine is the set of minerals that make up serpentinite ser-PENT-inite. It gets its name from its resemblance to snakeskin with a mottled color, waxy or resinous luster and curving, polished surfaces. This type of metamorphic rock is low in plant nutrients and high in toxic metals. Thus the vegetation on the so-called serpentine landscape is dramatically different from other plant communities, and serpentine barrens contain many specialized, endemic species.
Serpentinite can contain chrysotile, the serpentine mineral that crystallizes in long, thin fibers. This is the mineral commonly known as asbestos. Slate is a low-grade metamorphic rock with a dull luster and strong cleavage. It is derived from shale by regional metamorphism. Slate forms when shale, which consists of clay minerals, is put under pressure with temperatures of a few hundred degrees or so. Then the clays begin to revert to the mica minerals from which they formed.
This does two things: First, the rock grows hard enough to ring or "tink" under the hammer; second, the rock gets a pronounced cleavage direction, so that it breaks along flat planes. Slaty cleavage is not always in the same direction as the original sedimentary bedding planes, thus any fossils originally in the rock are usually erased, but sometimes they survive in smeared or stretched form. Slate is usually dark, but it can be colorful too. High-quality slate is an excellent paving stone as well as the material of long-lasting slate roof tiles and, of course, the best billiard tables.
Blackboards and handheld writing tablets were once made of slate, and the name of the rock has become the name of the tablets themselves.