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Os professores surdos quando concorrem para as escolas geralmente concorrem mais tarde. Porto: Tese de doutoramento, F. Ball, S. The policy processes and the processes of policy. Bowe, S. Gold orgs. Cavaca, F. Martins, M. Fernandes, D. Noesis, 18, Stoer, S. Wieviorka, M. To that effect, we will contextualize it by having in mind some key-concepts pertaining to this field, namely in what regards deafness and its developmental and social-cultural implications, as well as PSL linguistic specificities and professional interpretation activity.

The problem is that the hearing world does not listen. Jesse Jackson. Como referem Schlesinger and Meadow , cit. Neste sentido, e segundo Skliar , cit. Neste sentido, estamos de acordo com Jokinen Leroi-Gourhan, , cit. Tal preconceito. Ora neste sentido, tudo aponta para que o CODA licenciado, inserido desde sempre num ambiente bilingue, envolvido e mesclado na comunidade surda, entre tantos outros, esteja.

Bibliografia Afonso, C. Alferes, Valentim R. Coimbra: F. Amaral, M. Bell, J. Lisboa: Editorial Caminho. Centro Hospitalar de Coimbra sd. Perscrutar e Escutar a Surdez. Correia, I. Gallardo, B. La Comunidad Sorda. Grosjean, F. Life as a bilingual, the reality of living with two or more languages - Those incredible interpreters. Sign Language: The study of deaf people and their language.

United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Laborit, E. Lisboa: Portugal. Ladd, P. Understanding Deaf culture: In Search of Deafhood. Multilingual Matters Ltd. Reino Unido. Lane, H. Lisboa: Instituto Piaget. A Journey into the Deaf-World. Dawn Sign Press. Preston, P. Harvard University Press.

Sacks, O. Vejo uma Voz: Uma viagem ao mundo dos surdos. Sousa, J. Stokoe, W. Why sign came before speech. Washington, DC. Sussams, John E. Abstract Intertextuality is one of the most commonly used terms in contemporary literary theory. According to Kristeva, Barthes, Riffaterre, and other pioneers of the field, every text has its meaning only in relation to other texts; texts as viewed by modern literary theory are lacking in any kind of independent meaning.

The act of reading plunges us into a web of textual relations, a network of other texts. According to contemporary didactics, teachers should offer to their pupils the opportunity to understand that a literary text is not an autonomous entity and it could be considered more thoroughly in the basis of its intertextual relations. This paper offers some insight into what may be possible for directions in bringing texts together. We illustrate ways in which pupils can effectively read literary texts in parallel, compare them and gather its intertextual links and connections.

By doing this, children, can increase their critical thinking and robust their interpretive ability. Using evidence for literary theory we offer examples of teaching resources and good instructional practices. Key words: Intertextuality, interpretation, textual web, comparative reading, Modern Greek poetry, literature teaching. Introduction Intertextuality is not only one of the most commonly used terms in contemporary literary theory; it is also a crucial element in the attempt to understand literature and culture in general.

According to the theories of intertextuality, works of literature, after all, are built from systems, codes and traditions established by previous works of literature. Texts as viewed by modern literary theory are lacking in any kind of independent meaning. They are what theorists now called intertextual.

The act of reading plunges the reader into a web of textual relations, a network of other texts. To interpret a text, to discover its potential meanings is to trace those relations. Reading becomes a process of moving between texts. Meaning becomes something that exists between a text and all the other texts to which it refers and relates see Allen, as well as Worton and Still, , for an excellent outline of the history of intertextuality.

The text is a tissue of quotations drawn from the innumerable centers of culture As highlighted by Worton and Still , we should look at the notion of intertextuality in its two axes. First, the concept is based on the idea that the text does not function as a hermetically closed and self-sufficient system as far as its author himself as a reader, consciously or unconsciously draws upon his readings as part of the writing act. The second axe of intertextuality approaches the text from the point of view of its reader who during the act of reading establishes links between the text he is reading and other texts he has read in the past.

It is obvious that such links enrich the text and open it. In the present paper we illustrate ways in which students can effectively read literary texts in parallel, compare them on the basis of its intertextual links and connections. We are going to limit ourselves to some illustrative cases of intertextuality available for students in a secondary classroom. By doing this kind of text-to text reading, students develop a fuller and more articulate awareness of literature and they can also expand their literary uptake through detailed critical analysis.

The intertextual text-to text reading suggests that interpretation depends on how a text fits within the larger body of literature Wolf, This particular kind of text-to-text criticism depends on comparisons of texts by the same or by different authors, in the same genre, using similar conceits or stylistic devices, etc. Companion texts that intended by the author to be read together as a collection.

Complementary texts that explore various aspects of a topic or theme. Cavafy and G. Seferis, that explore as we shall see the vast theme of the symbolic journey. Synoptic texts that allow the reader to select a single kernel story, an idea or an easily recognizable plot pattern and read across the various adaptations, versions, and variations of it. We should notice here that literary pieces of an archetypal quality, such as fairy tales, myths, legends, etc. This kind of texts and stories has a universal appeal and they usually lend themselves to an enormous amount of storytelling.

The theme has inspired innumerable stories of all kind right up to many popular modern examples in literature 59 and media. Disruptive texts that present conflicting or alternative perspectives on the same topic or theme. Rereading texts that generate rereading and they are prolific in revisions and reinterpretations. The teacher can simply invite students to reread and revisit the same text. As far as students adopt this intertextual and comparative stance in the classroom, they can be focused on comparisons and contrasts between texts in order to reiterate and emphasize their potential links.

They can also investigate the vast array of potential connections among written as well as media texts such as pictures, music etc. As we indicated before literary texts can be connected as complementary texts assembled to explore various aspects of a topic or as conflicting texts that present alternative perspectives on the same topic.

According to Barthes, the very idea of the text, and thus of intertextuality, depends on the figure of web. The figure of spider web reminds us not only the World Wide Web but also the web-like diagrams 2 used in classroom as tools for learning Tompkins, Students can implement the notion of intertextuality in the classroom by making web clusters to brainstorm a topic, or organize and demonstrate their learning. Cavafy and the poem number 12 from the Mythistorema poetic sequence by the Nobel laureate poet, George Seferis.

These two poems establish a very intriguing intertextual-dialogic relationship as far as both of them convey and extend in a quite antithetical manner the symbolism of the journey and its various associations with human life. As representative exponents of modernist aesthetics and key figures of Modernism in Greece, the two poets, make extensive use of intertextual strategies as far as their poetry depend on significant intertextual influences and borrowings. Their poems are engaged in complex transformations of their intertexts, transformations made all the more necessary by their desire for novelty and radical innovation.

As a result, they foreground the active role of the reader, in a way that earlier texts do not. The poem works on two levels: on the most immediate, Cavafy. He declares that the final destination of the journey is not important; what is important is that the journey should be full of joy, adventure and delights. He implies that personal experience is of great importance and that life is its own justification. Hope the voyage is a long one. May there be many a summer morning when, with what pleasure, what joy, you come into harbors seen for the first time; may you stop at Phoenician trading stations to buy fine things, mother of pearl and coral, amber and ebony, sensual perfume of every kind— as many sensual perfumes as you can; and may you visit many Egyptian cities to gather stores of knowledge from their scholars.

Keep Ithaka always in your mind. Arriving there is what you are destined for. But do not hurry the journey at all. Better if it lasts for years, so you are old by the time you reach the island, wealthy with all you have gained on the way, not expecting Ithaka to make you rich. Ithaka gave you the marvelous journey. Without her you would not have set out. She has nothing left to give you now. Wise as you will have become, so full of experience, you will have understood by then what these Ithakas mean.

The Alexandrian poet advises the modern Odysseus to hope for a long voyage full of wonderful adventures. The protagonist travels from one place to another; Ithaka provides the motive. Would you attribute more intellectual motives to the marvelous journey of life? Would you agree with the poet that the journey not the destination is what constitutes our reward? What is the role of sensuality and voluptuousness in the poem? In most of the twenty-four poems of Mythistorema , the journey, literal and symbolic, is indeed presented as an endless voyage, an aimless voyage, that means an endless wandering through an almost wasteland.

When reading this poem students address the despair of the unfinished journey. In Mythistorema Seferis interweaves several ancient myths, such as the myth of the dead god Adonis, the myth of the Argonauts, the Odyssey and the Iliad, etc. The contemporary element of the poem concerns the history of modern Creece and the national despair that followed the Asia Minor disaster with the expatriation of Greeks from the ancient land of Ionia in Here we moored the ship to splice the broken oars, to drink water and to sleep.

The sea that embittered us is deep and unexplored and unfolds a boundless calm. Here among the pebbles we found a coin and threw dice for it. The youngest won it and disappeared. We put to sea again with our broken oars. Poem 12 portrays a typical wasteland; a landscape where, among rusted rocks and houses buried in whitewash, life is stifled and sterile, the symbolic voyage does not end to Homeric nostos the Greek word means return to home as far as it is fragmented and endless.

The broken oars convey a feeling of discouragement and pessimism about the end of the journey. The depression of the unfinished journey is reflected also in the land. The landscape builds up a certain psychological climate. In trying to interpret the last part of the poem students should have in mind two intertextual references. Thus it seems that this cryptic passage of the poem contains a paradox: for Elpenor, winning the dice game was equivalent to losing his life.

Students gain deeper insight into the vast symbolism of the journey and its association with life if they read together and comparatively the two poems finding similarities but also differences between them. Both poets employ Homeric references but also both of them undermine, each in his own unique way, the comforting and wish-filling notion of nostos as the end of the voyage in life.

What might possibly be the meaning of this denial of nostos in the context of our era? The plurality of texts generates a plurality of meanings and perspectives available for the reader. By reading texts intertextually and comparatively students have more opportunities to extend their reading abilities and be engaged in rich and powerful readings of literature. Reading and reflecting on different, even distant and disparate literary texts, students come to realize that literature empowers us in being who we are and makes possible for us to think of being more than we are.

Literature is a unique way of understanding the human condition in its entirety. It provides us with various views, insights and perceptions into life, helping us to envision how better can be the world. We are going to close our paper by giving another example of bringing different texts together and engaging students to make meaning through reading texts comparatively.

This particular example of teaching resources is based on the inspiring idea of making a teaching tool-kit by bringing together literature pieces in an unexpected way. The latter involve instances in which many potential inter-texts can be found for a specific text. All the above texts or mediatexts are inspired by the unfettered beauty of wild ducks or geese such as widgeon, mallard, shovellers, etc.

Pupils can participate in grand conversations to talk about the featured texts and then they can be involved in projects, write in their own reading logs and use the writing process as they create reports, stories or poems inspired by the featured texts, illustration and music as well. Conclusion The teacher must be familiar with the wide range of literary texts available in order to make wise choices in bringing together intertextually related pieces. As teachers are aware of the ideas their selection patterns convey they become more reflective about the literary texts they choose for classroom use.

References Allen, G. London and New York: Routledge. Bande Originale du film Le Peuple Migrateur Musique Originale de Bruno Coulais. Barthes, R. Translated by Stephen Heath. London: Fontana. Booker, Chr. The Seven Basic Plots. Why we Tell Stories. London and New York: Continuum. Capri-Karka, C. New York: Pella. Cavafy, C. Collected Poems. Translated by Edmund Keeley and Philip Sherrard. Edited by George Savidis. Revised Edition. Friar, K. Modern Greek Poetry. New York: Simon and Schuster. Gallico, P. The Snow Goose. Illustrated by Angela Barrett. London: Hutchinson.

Hartman, D. Reading across Texts: Expanding the Role of the Reader. The Reading Teacher, 47 3 , Malanos, T. The Poet C. Athens: Difros. Palamas K. Collected Poems, vol. Rosenblatt, L. Seferis, G. Translated, edited, and introduced by Edmund Keeley and Philip Sherrard. Step by Step. Wolf, S. Interpreting Literature with Children. Worton, M. Abstract The main of this article is to present strategies for addressing concepts in elementary school prior to the proposed by the Portuguese Programs.

We refer specifically to the approach of the verb in the 1st grade. All activities were developed by applying the Approach of Active Discovery as teaching methods. The fun learning games were also a constant presence in moments of learning and consolidation of knowledge. The class with which this project was developed had, at the time, 25 students. One of the class elements had poor phonological awareness and two cases of learning difficulties. The remaining elements of the class had a high-average level, with regard to learning.

Keywords: Grammar, discovery approach to grammar, fun learning games, verb. Como forma de contextualizar e esclarecer este conceito, transcrevemos Silva, que defende que. Os alunos pediram que continuasse, pois queriam saber os acontecimentos seguintes. Os alunos verificaram que era um pouco diferente de qualquer uma das suas ideias, mas igualmente bonita e com um final feliz para todos os intervenientes, acabando, nesse sentido, por ir ao encontro das expectativas transmitidas pelas suas propostas.

Os alunos falaram sobre o Sr. Apenas quando todos os alunos participaram nas tarefas esta fase foi dada por terminada. A tarefa do segundo grupo da biblioteca foi ler as palavras verbos escolhidos pelo grupo 1 e escolher a gravura correta para cada um dos cartazes. No entanto, mesmo esta espera foi importante, para terem contacto com mais exemplos e compreender melhor o que se esperava da tarefa.

No que diz respeito ao ludismo, Brickman refere que. Esta atividade, cujos resultados eram, de certa forma, inesperados, acabou por revelar-se interessante. A professora exemplificou a atividade, dizendo uma forma verbal em voz alta. Foi um momento muito divertido e que todos apreciaram. Os resultados foram muito variados e diferentes. Resta referir que alguns alunos imaginaram o Sr.

Aprendizagem Activa. Consultado em fevereiro,. Mas, um dia, houve um problema… Vou contar-vos como foi. Verbo, amigo do seu amigo, estava sempre em toda a parte. Ajudava tudo e todos, fazia andar o mundo. A sua vida era um corrupio! Decidiu ficar em casa, deixar que sentissem a sua falta.

Com muita calma, explicou-lhe: - Sr. Foi uma festa e todos correram a agradecer-lhe, quando o viram a trabalhar de novo, arduamente, para que tudo voltasse ao normal. Abstract As children grow and develop, their language becomes more elaborate and capable of conveying the information they intend. This scenario led me to reflect, to investigate new pedagogic practices — sensibilization to grammatical number and gender — and to propose myself trying to introduce strategies that promote new knowledge, new ways of doing and new ways of learning.

Estas devem ser proporcionadas de forma integrada e contextualizadas. Para concretizar esta proposta. O grupo gosta de dialogar, de questionar, de partilhar as suas descobertas. Conversei com o grupo, para saber qual o determinante que faltava em cada Figura. Esta proposta resultou de forma bastante positiva, conforme se verifica no painel exposto na Figura V. Partiram de exemplos de material existente na sala. As expectativas foram superadas.

Por exemplo:. Lopes, J. Lisboa: Asa Editores. Sim—Sim, I. Desenvolvimento da Linguagem. Silva, A. Quixote ou Lolita, entraram na cultura comum e na linguagem quotidiana. Abstract The History of Literature proves that great characters make great narratives; some, such as D. Quijote or Lolita, made their way into common culture and daily language. However, most of the times, Secondary School students excessively center their compositions in the plot, disdaining the construction of characters.

It is possible to invert this situation by resorting to some techniques and exercises, which can be made in the context of a class or of a Creative Writing workshop. In this paper, I intend to present a few hints and suggest activities to develop a lively and realistic character. What are the advantages of showing instead of telling? What are the different techniques to characterize? I resort to my experience as a writer and teacher of Creative Writing, and also to the legacy of Portuguese and foreign writers.

The result will be, I expect, a series of techniques that children and teenagers can use in their assignments. Keywords: Creative Writing, construction of characters, teaching, techniques. Make them live. But my people must be more than people. A Ilha do Tesouro, de Robert Lewis Stevenson, amarelecera e apresentava agora a cor das moedas de ouro que os piratas tanto procuraram. Que nome atribuir-lhe? Como criar empatia com o leitor? Cervantes, Parece estar viva, esta personagem de papel e tinta. O que esconde um nome? O que se esconde, de facto, num nome? Dulce pode ser uma rapariga doce, Severina, uma mulher severa, por exemplo.

Outra autora, Celia Rees, prefere olhar para as lombadas das obras que tem na estante, e combinar nomes e apelidos de escritores famosos. Por exemplo, o narrador pode contar que D. Watts, Bibliografia Cervantes, M. Viscondes de Castilho e de Azevedo. Estarreja: MEL Editores. Eliot, T.

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Collected Poems London: Faber and Faber. Friel, J. Newman, E. Mancelos, J. Lisboa: Colibri, Os Meus Livros. Marshall, E. Novel Writing: Sixteen Steps to Success. Mueller, L. Reynolds Creative Writing: Forms and Techniques. New York: National Textbook. Oates, J. Cruz Quebrada: Casa das Letras. Pennac, D. Como um Romance. Lisboa: Asa. Sheridan, D. Teaching Secondary English: Readings and Applications. New York: Routledge.

Stein, S. London: Souvenir Press. Shakespeare, W. The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. Teddington: Ecolibrary. Watts, N. Wilde, O.


The Works of Oscar Wilde. London: Lamb. Lisboa: Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada. Alves Martins, M. Literacy Practices in kindergartens and conceptualizations about written language among Portuguese preschool children. Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 7, Auerbach, E. Which way for family literacy: intervention or empowerment? Morrow Ed. Family Literacy. Connections in Schools and communities pp. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association. Cruz, J.

Tese de Doutoramento em Psicologia, Universidade do Minho. Dickinson, D. Building support for language and early literacy in preschool classrooms through in-service professional development: Effects of the Literacy Environment Enrichment Program LEEP. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 22, Literacy development: psychogenesis.

Goodman ed. Francisco, A. Evaluating the impact of different early literacy interventions on low-income Costa Rican kindergarteners. International Journal of Educational Research, 45, Reading aloud from culturally diverse literature. Morrow Eds Beginning reading and writing pp. Goodman, Y. Hannon, P. In Neuman, S. Eds Children Achieving. Best Practices in Early Literacy pp.

Rhetoric and research in family literacy. British Educational Research Journal, 26, Hood, M. Journal of Educational Psychology, , Kirby, J. Family literacy environment and early literacy development. Exceptionality Education Canada, 18, Landry, S. Enhancing early literacy skills for preschool children: Bridging professional development model to scale. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39, Mata, L. Literacia Familiar. Machado, C. Although many injuries leading to subluxation of the glenohumeral joint occur when an unanticipated force is applied, contact athletes ready their shoulder muscles in anticipation of impact with opponents.

This leads to a compressive force at the glenohumeral joint. We hypothesize that, in combination with a posteriorly directed force at impact, the resultant vector is a shearing force to the posterior labrum and articular surface. Repeated exposure leads to posterior labral detachment without capsular injury.

Posterior labral reattachment provides consistently good results, allowing the athlete to return to competition. Treatment implications of posterior fossa ependymoma subgroups. As yet, the response of the two entities to treatment is unclear. To determine the relationship between the two molecular subgroups of posterior fossa ependymoma and treatment, we studied a cohort of patients with molecularly profiled, clinically annotated posterior fossa ependymomas.

Posterior encephalopathy with vasospasm: MRI and angiography. Posterior encephalopathy is characterised by headache, impairment of consciousness, seizures and progressive visual loss.

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MRI shows bilateral, predominantly posterior , cortical and subcortical lesions with a distribution. Our aim was to analyse the MRI lesion pattern and angiographic findings because the pathophysiology of posterior encephalopathy is incompletely understood. We report three patients with clinical and imaging findings consistent with posterior encephalopathy who underwent serial MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging DWI and construction of apparent diffusion coefficient ADC maps, and four-vessel digital subtraction angiography DSA. DWI revealed symmetrical subcortical and cortical parieto-occipital high signal.

High and also low ADCs indicated probable vasogenic and cytotoxic oedema. On follow-up there was focal cortical laminar necrosis, while the white-matter lesions resolved almost completely, except in the arterial border zones. DSA revealed diffuse arterial narrowing, slightly more marked in the posterior circulation. These findings suggest that posterior encephalopathy may in some cases be due to diffuse, severe vasospasm affecting especially in the parieto-occipital grey matter, with its higher vulnerability to ischemia.

Cerebral vasospasm due to digitoxin intoxication, resulting in posterior encephalopathy, has not yet been described previously. Posterior alien hand syndrome: case report. The alien hand syndrome AHS is involuntary uncontrolled movement of an arm with a sense of estrangement from the limb itself. AHS was initially used to describe interhemispheric disconnection phenomena in patients with lesions in the anterior corpus callosum, but it has been found in patients with posterior cerebral lesions without involvement of the corpus callosum, for example parietal infarcts or corticobasal degeneration.

The posterior alien hand syndrome is less frequent and presents with nonpurposive behaviour like lifting the arm or writhing fingers. We report an year-old woman with a posterior AHS of the dominant right hand. MRI showed atrophy of the pre- and postcentral gyri without involvement of the corpus callosum. We discuss the aetiology of the posterior AHS and the differences from the anterior varieties. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: Some novel The third, a thalassaemic child receiving regular blood transfusions, had PRES Congenital abnormalities of the posterior fossa.

The frequency and importance of the evaluation of the posterior fossa have increased significantly over the past 20 years owing to advances in neuroimaging. Nowadays, conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques allow detailed evaluation of the complex anatomic structures within the posterior fossa.

A wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities has been demonstrated, including malformations anomalies due to an alteration of the primary developmental program caused by a genetic defect and disruptions anomalies due to the breakdown of a structure that had a normal developmental potential. Familiarity with the spectrum of congenital posterior fossa anomalies and their well-defined diagnostic criteria is crucial for optimal therapy, an accurate prognosis, and correct genetic counseling. The authors discuss the spectrum of posterior fossa malformations and disruptions, with emphasis on neuroimaging findings including diagnostic criteria , neurologic presentation, systemic involvement, prognosis, and risk of recurrence.

RSNA, Objective: Presentation of a case series of primary and revision arthroplasty utilizing the posterior approach. Centre over a period of one year were queried and data extracted and recorded. Posterior Fossa Tumors and Intellectual Impairment. Full Text Available The effect of cerebellar damage on intellectual function in 76 children treated surgically for malignant posterior fossa tumor was investigated at the Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif, and the Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Necker Hospital, Paris, France.

Posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without odontoid fracture.

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We report a case of posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without a fracture of the odontoid in a year-old woman. There have been nine reported cases of similar injury in the English literature. The integrity of the transverse ligament following posterior atlantoaxial dislocations has not been well documented in these reports. In the present case, MRI revealed an intact transverse ligament, which probably contributed to the stability of the C1-C2 complex following closed reduction.

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Vermian agenesis without posterior fossa cyst. We report 11 cases of vermian partial agenesis without posterior fossa cyst or hemispheric abnormalities. Characteristic MR signs were: absence of the posterior lobe, hypoplasia of the anterior lobe, a narrow sagittal cleft separating the hemispheres ''buttocks sign'' and fourth ventricle deformity.

The main clinical signs were complex oculomotor dysfunction and developmental delay. None of the patients had respiratory symptoms. Consideration is given to the relationship between Joubert syndrome and this entity as well as to embroyological data. Mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum. Kurosaki, Y.

The vast majority of germ cell tumors in the thorax arise at or near the thymus. We report a case of a year-old man with mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum. He was asymptomatic and was incidentally found to have a posterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomography was helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of mature teratoma by demonstrating the presence of fat and calcification.

The differential diagnosis included neurogenic tumors, liposarcoma, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. With 2 figs. An unusual cause of posterior mediastinal cyst. Full Text Available Cystic lesions of the mediastinum may be congenital or acquired. The differential diagnosis depends on their location in the mediastinum.

Cysts in the posterior mediastinum are generally developmental cysts and are neurogenic or of foregut origin. We report the case of a year-old boy, who presented with dry cough and progressively increasing breathlessness, and was found to have a cystic lesion in the posterior mediastinum. Fine needle aspiration from the cyst helped make a diagnosis of tuberculosis. Analytic posteriors for Pearson's correlation coefficient. Pearson's correlation is one of the most common measures of linear dependence. Recently, Bernardo 11th International Workshop on Objective Bayes Methodology, introduced a flexible class of priors to study this measure in a Bayesian setting.

For this large class of priors, we show that the marginal posterior for Pearson's correlation coefficient and all of the posterior moments are analytic. Our results are available in the open-source software package JASP. Post-partum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome PRES is a clinicopathological syndrome associated with various clinical conditions presenting with headache, encephalopathy, seizure and cortical visual disturbances.

Radiological findings in PRES are thought to be due to vasogenic edema predominantly in posterior cerebral hemispheres and are reversible with appropriate management. We present a case of post partum PRES,A 29 year old primigravida of 33 weeks 3 days period of gestation who prese Study Design: Descriptive case series. All were initially suprapubically catheterized followed by definitive surgery after at least 3 months.

Results: Thirty male patients were analyzed with a mean follow-up of 10 months, 2 patients were excluded as they developed failure in first 3 months postoperatively. Mean patients age was On follow-up, 7 patients Five Two patients 6. Re-do perineal urethroplasty was eventually performed. The overall success rate was Conclusion: Posterior anastomotic urethroplasty offers excellent long-term results to patients with posterior urethral trauma and distraction defect even after multiple prior procedures.

Descriptive case series. Thirty male patients were analyzed with a mean follow-up of 10 months, 2 patients were excluded as they developed failure in first 3 months postoperatively. Mean patient's age was Posterior anastomotic urethroplasty offers excellent long-term results to patients with posterior urethral trauma and distraction defect even after multiple prior procedures. Early endoscopic realignment in posterior urethral injuries. Posterior urethral injury requires meticulous tertiary care and optimum expertise to manage successfully.

The aim of our study is to describe our experiences with pelvic injuries involving posterior urethra and their outcome after early endoscopic realignment. A prospective study was carried out in 20 patients with complete posterior urethral rupture, from November till October They presented with blunt traumatic pelvic fracture and underwent primary realignment of posterior urethra in our institute.

The definitive diagnosis of urethral rupture was made after retrograde urethrography and antegrade urethrography where applicable. The initial management was suprapubic catheter insertion after primary trauma management in casualty. After a week of conservative management with intravenous antibiotics and pain management, patients were subjected to the endoscopic realignment. The follow up period was at least six months. The results were analyzed with SPSS software.

After endoscopic realignment, all patients were advised CISC for the initial 3 months. All patients voided well after three months of CISC. However, 12 patients were lost to follow up by the end of 6 postoperative months. One patient with restricture had some degree of erectile dysfunction who improved significantly after phospodiesterase inhibitors.

None of the patients had features of incontinence. Early endoscopic realignment of posterior urethra is a minimally invasive modality in the management of complete posterior urethral injury with low rates of incontinence and impotency. Traumatic lesions of the posterior urethra. The posterior urethra is attached to the pelvis bone by puboprostatic ligaments and the perineal membrane, which explains why disruption of the pelvic ring can injure the urethra at this level.

To identify suspected cases of posterior urethral trauma and to perform the diagnosis and its immediate or deferred management. Search in PubMed of articles related to traumatic posterior urethral lesions, written in English or Spanish. We reviewed the relevant publications including literature reviews and chapters from books related to the topic.

With patients with pelvis fractures, we must always rule out posterior urethral lesions. The diagnostic examination of choice is retrograde urethrography, which, along with the severity of the condition, will determine the management in the acute phase and whether the treatment will be performed immediately or deferred. Early diagnosis and proper acute management decrease the associated complications, such as strictures, urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Despite the classical association between posterior urethral lesions and pelvic fractures, the management of those lesions whether immediate or deferred remains controversial.

Thanks to the growing interest in urethral disease, there are an increasing number of studies that help us achieve better management of these lesions. All rights reserved. It is risky to diagnose posterior MI using only precordial reciprocal changes, since the other leads may be more optimally positioned for the identification of electrocardiographic changes. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between electrocardiography changes and wall motion abnormalities in patients with posterior MI for earlier and better diagnosis of posterior MI. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, we enrolled patients with posterior MI who had come to the Emergency Department of Shariati Hospital with their first episode of chest pain.

A lead surface electrocardiogram using posterior leads V7-V9 was performed for all participants. All data were analyzed using SPSS and p posterior. The posterior leads showed better positive predictive value than the anterior leads for posterior wall motion abnormality. Conclusion: Electrocardiography of the posterior leads in patients with acute chest pain can help in earlier diagnosis and in time treatment of posterior MI. O paciente foi extubado no dia seguinte. Management of posterior urethral disruption injuries.

Posterior urethral disruption is a traumatic injury to the male urethra, which most often results from pelvic fracture. After trauma, the distraction defect between the two ends of the urethra often scars and becomes fibrotic, blocking the urethra and bladder emptying. Increasing evidence suggests that many posterior urethral disruptions occur at the junction between the membranous urethra and the bulbar urethra, which is distal to the rhabdosphincter.

In the acute setting, when a posterior urethral disruption is suspected, retrograde urethrography should be performed. Posterior urethral disruptions can be managed acutely by realignment of the urethra over a urethral catheter or by placement of a suprapubic catheter for bladder drainage only. Once fibrosis has stabilized, the patient can undergo posterior urethroplasty. In most cases, this procedure can be performed via a perineal approach in a single-stage surgery. The results of this single-stage perineal urethroplasty are excellent, and a patent urethra can be re-established in the majority of men who undergo surgery.

Late presentation of posterior urethral valves. Presence of posterior urethral valves PUV is the most common cause of urinary tract obstruction in the male neonate. We present a case of PUVs in an adult male who presented with history of obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms and hematuria. On evaluation, he was found to have raised serum creatinine level. A voiding cystourethrogram VCUG could not be completely performed because of narrowing in the posterior urethra. A rigid urethrocystoscopy was performed at which he was found to have type-I posterior urethral valve which were fulgurated.

This case highlights that PUVs is not solely a disease of infancy but may also present late. VCUG is the radiological investigation of choice but the diagnosis may be missed. A urethrocystoscopy is advised if there is a high index of suspicion. The bihemispheric posterior inferior cerebellar artery.

Rarely, a solitary posterior inferior cerebellar artery PICA will supply both cerebellar hemispheres. We report four cases of this variant. We present a retrospective review of clinical information and imaging of patients undergoing angiography at our institution to identify patients with a bihemispheric PICA. There were four patients: three males and one female.

One patient presented with a ruptured arteriovenous malformation, and one with a ruptured aneurysm. Two patients had normal angiograms. The bihemispheric PICA was an incidental finding in all cases. The bihemispheric vessel arose from the dominant left vertebral artery, and the contralateral posterior inferior cerebellar artery was absent or hypoplastic. In all cases, contralateral cerebellar supply arose from a continuation of the ipsilateral PICA distal to the choroidal point and which crossed the midline dorsal to the vermis.

We conclude that the PICA may supply both cerebellar hemispheres. This rare anatomic variant should be considered when evaluating patients with posterior fossa neurovascular disease. Malignant ectomesenchymoma of the posterior mediastinum. The surgical management of a four years old female child, presented at the Islamic International Medical Complex IIMC , Islamabad, with three months history of recurrent chest infections and failure to thrive, is discussed.

Posterior mediastinal tumor was diagnosed radiologically. Tumor had flimsy attachments with pericardium and thoracic aorta but was densely adherent with lower lobe of left lung. The tumor was completely removed along with a segment of lung. The postoperative recovery was uneventful. The diagnosis of malignant ectomesenchymoma was made on histopathology.

The patients is well in follow-up. This is the first reported case of malignant ectomesenchymoma arising within posterior mediastinum. Transverse posterior element fractures associated with torsion. Six examples of a previously undescribed class of transverse vertebral element fractures are presented. These fractures differ from Chance and Smith fractures and their variants in the following respects: 1 the etiology is torsion and not flexion; 2 there is neither distraction of posterior ring fragments nor posterior ligament tears; 3 in contrast to Chance and Smith fractures, extension of the fracture into the vertebral body is absent or minimal; 4 the transverse process of the lumbar vertebra is avulsed at its base with a vertical fracture, not split horizontally.

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These fractures occur in cervical, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae in normal or compromised areas of the spine. Treatment planning of implants in posterior quadrants. Differences in anatomy and biomechanics make treatment of posterior quadrants with dental implants substantially different to that of anterior areas. Without implants, when posterior teeth were lost, treatment options included a long span fixed partial denture or a removable prosthesis, especially when no terminal abutment was available. Today, with the use of implants, options are available that allow preservation of unrestored teeth.

Posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome in poststretococcal acute glomerulonephritis. Bazzino Borzone, F. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy LEPR is a clinical entity that affects radiation usually the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres. It is frequently associated with acute arterial hypertension and immunosuppressive therapy, among other causes.

The clinical presentation is varied, with headache, nausea, vomiting, impaired consciousness and abnormal behavior, seizures and visual disturbances, symptoms that often regress. Computed tomography CT and magnetic resonance imaging MRI images show white matter edema predominantly in posterior regions of the brain. We present a 10 year old boy with leprosy in the course of a nephrotic syndrome secondary to acute diffuse glomerunefritis GNDA poststreptococcal.

Neurenteric cyst of the posterior mediastinum. We report a case of a large posterior mediastinal neurenteric cyst in a neonate demonstrated by chest radiographs, barium swallow examination, ultrasonography and CT of the thorax. All the investigations revealed a large posterior mediastinal cystic mass with vertebral anomalies in the form of scoliosis and hemivertebra.

The cyst was completely excised by a right posterolateral thoracotomy and biopsy showed the features of a neurenteric cyst. Destacam-se trabalhos em carcinoma da mama, espinocelular da bexiga, pele e cavidade oral. Os resultados foram classificados e comparados. O grupo moderadamente diferenciado apresentou escores mais elevados do que o grupo pouco diferenciado.

Many studies have reported increased expression of S A7 psoriasin in neoplastic lesions. Among them are studies on breast carcinoma, bladder squamous cell carcinoma, skin tumors and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. The expression of S A7 has not been described for laryngeal cancer. Results were classified and compared. Two cases occurred following cerebral anoxia due to accidental strangulation and near-drowning, respectively. Surgical site infection in posterior spine surgery. Mar 20, Methodology: All consecutive patients who had posterior spine surgeries between January However, spinal instrumentation, surgery on cervical region and wound inspection on or While advances have been made in infection control A posterior tibial tendon skipping rope.

This report presents an athletic patient with swelling and progressive pain on the posteromedial side of his right ankle on weight bearing. MRI demonstrated tenosynovitis and suspicion of a length rupture. On posterior tibial tendoscopy, there was no rupture, but medial from the tendon a tissue cord. Hindfoot endoscopy for posterior ankle pain.

Hindfoot pain can be caused by a variety of pathologies, most of which can be diagnosed and treated with endoscopy. The main indications are posterior tibial tenosynovectomy, diagnosis of a longitudinal peroneus brevis rupture, peroneal tendon adhesiolysis, flexor hallucis longus release, os. Posterior arch defects of the cervical spine. Spondylolysis and absence of the pedicle are congenital anomalies of the posterior cervical spine. Their roentgenographic changes may be confused with other more serious entities which may necessitate either emergent therapy or require extensive diagnostic testing and treatment.

Four cases are present and the literature is reviewed. A hypothesis for the embryologic etiology of these entities is proposed. Frozen shoulder or missed posterior dislocation? Restoration of the endodontically treated posterior tooth. Results and conclusions: Direct adhesive restorations, indirect bonded restorations and traditional full crown are three therapeutic options for the single posterior endodontically treated teeth.

The amount of remaining sound tooth structure is the most significant factor influencing the therapeutic approach. The clinician's operative skill is a determining aspect for long-term success of adhesive inlays. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in patient. May 26, PRES is a clinical and radiological entity associating varying degrees, headaches, impaired consciousness, seizures and visual disturbances to neurological and radiological abnormalities of the parietal-occipital white matter [3]. PRES has a Remote supratentorial hematoma soon after posterior fossa surgery for the removal of a space-occupying lesion is a rare but dramatic and dreaded complication, carrying significant morbidity and mortality.

A year-old woman presented with headache of 1-year duration that worsened over last 2 months, progressive CT findings of posterior pararenal effusion. The posterior pararenal space PPS is a potential space between the posterior renal fascia and the transversalis fascia. We reviewed 12 cases of posterior pararenal effusion. The causes of the effusion were retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to trauma 7 cases or rupture of renal tumor 1 case , pancreatitis 2 cases , urinoma 1 case and amebic colitis of the cecum 1 case. The effusion in the ipsilateral perirenal space and thickening of the ipsilateral posterior renal fascia were combined in all cases.

The effusion in the ipsilateral anterior pararenal space was associated in 11 cases of The effusion in the PPS is not uncommon findings of retroperitoneal hemorrhage or effusion, but usually related with perirenal or anterior pararenal effusion with no clinical significance. Full Text Available Reversible posterior leucoencephalopathy syndrome RPLS has previously been described in patients who have renal insufficiency, eclampsia, hypertensive encephalopathy and patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy.

The mechanism by which immunosuppressive agents can cause this syndrome is not clear, but it is probably related with cytotoxic effects of these agents on the vascular endothelium. We report eight patients who received cyclosporine A CSA after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation or as treatment for severe aplastic anemia SSA who developed posterior leucoencephalopathy.

The most common signs and symptoms were seizures and headache. Neurological dysfunction occurred preceded by or concomitant with high blood pressure and some degree of acute renal failure in six patients. Computerized tomography studies showed low-density white matter lesions involving the posterior areas of cerebral hemispheres. Symptoms and neuroimaging abnormalities were reversible and improvement occurred in all patients when given lower doses of CSA or when the drug was withdrawn.

O exame de. Imaging findings in posterior instability of the shoulder. Posterior shoulder instability refers to the symptoms and signs resulting from excessive posterior translation of the humerus. Magnetic resonance MR imaging is the radiological modality of choice in the diagnostic assessment of posterior instability. Computed tomography CT is useful in the evaluation of osseous abnormalities associated with posterior instability. As the recommended surgical management of lesions associated with posterior instability is a lesion-specific approach, awareness of the specific lesions that have been described in association with posterior instability helps in pre-surgical planning.

The purpose of this article is to review the classification of, and injury mechanisms leading to, posterior shoulder instability and to describe imaging findings associated with posterior instability, with emphasis on MR imaging. Full Text Available Chronic subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa is an uncommon entity, and spontaneous lesions are very rarely described, occurring mostly during anticoagulation therapy.

The association of the posterior fossa chronic subdural hematoma with spontaneous parenchymal hemorrhage without anticoagulation therapy was never related in the literature, to our knowledge. We describe a case of a 64 year-old woman who suffered a spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage, treated conservatively, and presented 1 month later with a chronic subdural posterior fossa hematoma.

Metodologia: Estudo retrospectivo. Late-onset Alzheimer disease genetic variants in posterior cortical atrophy and posterior AD. To investigate association of genetic risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer disease LOAD with risk of posterior cortical atrophy PCA , a syndrome of visual impairment with predominant Alzheimer disease AD pathology in posterior cortical regions, and with risk of " posterior AD" neuropathology. We assessed 81 participants with PCA diagnosed clinically and 54 with neuropathologic diagnosis of posterior AD vs 2, controls for association with 11 significant single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs from published LOAD risk genome-wide association studies.

Our findings suggest that at least some of the genetic risk factors for LOAD are shared with these atypical conditions and provide effect-size estimates for their future genetic studies. Posterior Mediastinal Tumors: Outcome of Surgery. The posterior mediastinum is a potential space along each side of the vertebral column and adjacent proximal portion of the ribs.

Primary tumors of posterior mediastinum are usually neurogenic. The aim of this study was to evaluate different surgical approaches used for the resection of posterior mediastinal tumors, and to assess morbidity, mortality and patients survival. Patients and Methods: Between January I and January , 30 patients with posterior mediastinal tumors were included. CT scan of the chest and CT guided biopsy were done for all patients; whereas MRI was done for suspected intraspinal extension.

Posterolateral thoracotomy was the approach used in most of the patients. The Akwari approach was used in most of the patients with Dumbbell tumors. Dumbbell tumors were found in 10 patients. Wide local excision was done in 13 patients; whereas extended resection was done in the remaining 17 patients. The mean intra-operative blood loss was cc and the mean hospital stay was 12 days. Morbidity in relation to the procedures developed in 8 patients atelectasis, meningitis, paraplegia, Horner syndrome and mild wound sepsis in 4, I, I, 1 and I of the patients; respectively.

One postoperative mortality, due to meningitis was recorded. The overall survival by the end of three years was The overall disease free survival was Posterior mediastinal tumors may reach large size before becoming symptomatic. Complete surgical excision including.

Psychological distress related to smoking cessation in patients with acute myocardial infarction

Full Text Available Purpose. To report the results of the posterior pole sparing laser photocoagulation combined with intravitreal bevacizumab injection IVB in retinopathy of prematurity ROP. The results were compared with those of full-laser treatment combined with IVB to 8 eyes of 5 infants with advanced ROP without involvement of the posterior pole.

The plus sign decreased significantly at postoperative day 1, the neovascular proliferation regressed by postoperative week 1, and the normal vascularization started at postoperative day 32 on the average. Two months after treatment, vascularization of the spared avascular area was completed. There was no macular dragging, tractional retinal detachment, foveal destruction by laser scars, or any other adverse event. No significant anatomical differences were identified from those of full-laser ablation combined with IVB. Posterior pole sparing laser with IVB can give favorable results without destruction of posterior pole retina.

Dos casos referidos, 10 eram portadores de pequeno mal e destes, 5 apresentavam ritmo delta posterior 3 do sexo masculino e 2 do sexo feminino. The results with EEG tracings of patients of both sexes with ages between 5 and 24 years are reviewed. Except for the slow alpha variant, at least one of the four other phenomena as observed in patients 80 males end 51 females.

The theta rhythm was observed in 49 cases 29 males and 20 females. This higher frequence among the males is not significant but the higher frequence among the younger and the association with a clinical picture of. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: A case report. Diagnostic imaging includes examination by magnetic resonance MR and computed tomography CT, where brain edema is visualized bi-laterally and symmetrically, predominantly posteriorly , parietally, and occipitally. Case report. We presented a year-old patient with the years-long medical history of hipertension and renal insufficiency, who developed PRES with the symptomatology of the rear cranium.

CT and MR verified changes in the white matter involving all lobes on both sides of the brain. After a two-week treatment antihypertensive, hypolipemic and rehydration therapy clinical improvement with no complications occurred, with complete resolution of changes in the white matter observed on CT and MR.

PRES is a reversible syndrome in which the symptoms withdraw after several days to several weeks if early diagnosis is made and appropriate treatment started without delay. Visual Dysfunction in Posterior Cortical Atrophy. Maia da Silva, Mari N. Posterior cortical atrophy PCA is a syndromic diagnosis. It is characterized by progressive impairment of higher cortical visual function with imaging evidence of degeneration affecting the occipital, parietal, and posterior temporal lobes bilaterally.

Most cases will prove to have Alzheimer pathology. The aim of this review is to summarize the development of the concept of this disorder since it was first introduced. A critical discussion of the evolving diagnostic criteria is presented and the differential diagnosis with regard to the underlying pathology is reviewed. Please, fill out the form below to receive a free trial. To learn more about our GDPR policies click here. If you want more info regarding data storage, please contact gdpr jove.

This is a sample clip. To watch the full video start a free trial today! Your institution must subscribe to JoVE's Medicine section to access this content. Identifica a uretra bulbar. Feche as bordas dorsais das extremidades uretrais transversalmente sobre um cateter uretral de silicone 20P com suturas interrompidas Poliglactina Feche o corpo esponjoso da uretra spongioplasty usando o suturas Poliglactina Coloque oito suturas de Poliglactina e passe um cateter uretral de silicone 20P para a bexiga. Cateter de drenagem e fechamento de ferida Deixe um cateter uretral de silicone 20P no lugar.

Corte a agulha. Sutura da pele com pontos de Donati interrompidos usando suturas Poliglactina Aplica um curativo compressivo perineal. Desinfectar a ferida perineal repetidamente e usar um cabelo secador 3 — 5 x por dia para manter a ferida seca e pura. No caso de extravasamento significativo, substitua o cateter transuretral e executar o VCUG novamente 1 semana depois. Already have an Account? Developmental Biology.