Elements of Supervision: Teaching, Reflections, & Resources
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Sexton, J. Mulhern, and D. Benjamin Mann is the head of school, and Dr. Steven Lorch was the founding head of school and is senior advisor to school leadership, of the Solomon Schechter School of Manhattan. Classroom observations hold great potential to improve teaching and learning. In an effective evaluation and Assessment is a critical function at all levels of day schools.
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From the classroom to the boardroom, the faculty to the head, every stakeholder and every aspect of school operations stand to benefit from evaluation. Nonetheless, thinking about assessment, and the vehicles for achieving it, are changing in many ways parallel to other aspects of school design. This issue offers reflections about assessment, various and novel ways of achieving it, and discussion of outcomes that can result from successful measurement.
Knowledge Center. Teacher Supervision? Professional Development? Or Both? Description A teacher and an administrator sit at a table. Classification What is this? What It Is This model of teacher supervision and professional growth is founded on five assumptions about the optimal conditions for teacher learning. In this supervisory and professional development approach, it is hard to discern hierarchy in the relationship.
Guide to Student Teaching Supervision | NMU School of Education
Conclusion Teacher supervision presents Jewish day school leaders with a challenge and an opportunity. To Learn More Bryk, A. Dweck, C. Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. Knowles, M. Schon, D. Tucker, P. Linking Teacher Evaluation and Student Learning. Reflecting on learning achievements can empower the learner to make intelligent decisions about how to move ahead with their learning needs.
Working towards becoming a reflective practitioner enhances what a worker can bring to their job role, as well as the development of their future career plans Schon, Workers can hone their reflective skills in order to critically appraise what has been experienced via practice. This in turn enables them to improve ongoing practice, by using the information and knowledge they are gaining from experience.
Billett reiterates the power of experiential learning and emphasizes the breadth of its reach, to include, work-based learning WBL , ships and work placements which may be part of a work integrated learning programme such as co-operative learning see also Department for Business for Innovation and Skills, Research suggests that this is most effective when it involves others and as a consequence the chance to collaborate and share ideas about changes, alterations and new ways of operating Gray, Reflecting critically, and sharing the outcomes of this, can be frightening and can cause feelings of vulnerability amongst those exposing their thoughts and findings; working in groups and networks with fellow workers or other students can offer the support and multiple input needed to help deal with this and provide evidence that the process is worthwhile, even if it feels daunting at first Urdang, ; Walker et al.
Dewey discusses this requirement for open-mindedness and willingness to listen to others and act upon criticism. The key point to remember is that although much of this thinking and activity around reflection stems from academia this does not need to be academic thinking, it needs to be more than theoretical or hypothetical. The synergy created by the combination of sources relies on different elements.
Ideally reflective practitioners will harness and combine the intellectual and the emotional with their operational practices. Rather than a one-dimensional response this catalyst will produce an ongoing process where thinking, acting, questioning and collaborating are brought together in a supportive combination, creating nuanced, smart responses and superior results.
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Within the UK there are institutions that offer degree programmes at undergraduate and postgraduate level focusing on WBL. For example: Teesside University — www. Middlesex University — www. University of Chester — www. Lancaster University — www. University of Derby — www. These programmes are designed to recognize and acknowledge workplace learning i. This means that relevant learning already accumulated away from formal education can be documented and awarded credit through established processes and therefore help the student to progress.
This is one way to create appropriate routes to HE-level qualifications for busy employees who want, or need, to study and can offer them a time and money saving device; they will probably be required to undertake less modules hence less fees and complete far less campus attendance than a traditional full-time student. The recognition of prior learning is widely practiced internationally Perrin and Helyer, Students can be provided with help in making this claim — but only the student knows the details of their past learning and therefore in order to be successful in this claim students must look back and critically reflect on their past learning.
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This self-audit is crucial if the student is to gain the maximum credit possible. Undertaking such activities facilitates active reflection on work activities. Adopting this reflection as an inherent part of continuously evaluating, reviewing and improving their performance, satisfaction and results would be the ideal outcome.
It can be useful for students to approach this skills audit as a personal training needs analysis TNA , something many work-based learners are familiar with. Combined with their growing academic skills, critical reflection encourages work-based students to change practices within the workplace, hence enhancing their personal performance, but also the overall performance of their organization. Such organizational developments focus on the learning that naturally occurs at work, and emphasize that all levels of employee are work-based learners.
It is not a lower level or derogatory term but rather an indication of lifelong learning. Many work-based learners discover that, as learner workers, they are already using critical reflection in an intuitive way without realising and this can be very empowering for them as it provides a strong starting point to enhance this skills-set.
Teaching reflective skills in academia has steadily grown in importance Schon, ; Schunk and Zimmerman, , from strong beginnings in professions such as nursing it became more apparent how useful the practice was for work-based leaners generally. Teaching reflective skills is beginning to appear across the curriculum, with many different kinds of students being asked to compile reflective essays, reports, journals, logs, diaries, or portfolios as part of their assignments in UK universities Helyer and Kay, Established WBL programmes such as those mentioned above have long included active reflection within the core modules; learners might typically compile a series of short narrative statements , words in which they purposefully reflect upon their learning processes during different work and study activities.
These activities will facilitate the development of reflective practitioners who can share their critical reflections and analysis, together with their higher-level ideas, with their work colleagues. Innovative practice in this area can be seen, amongst others, at Plymouth University, UK — www. Instructions given to students to help them to reflect on what they have done and learned, and on how they intend to build on that learning, often include illustrations of a circular format based on the work of Kolb and Gibbs This means that feelings and senses are used as well as thought processes.
Furthermore, attention is given to thinking about information, but also doing something with the information. Reflection is therefore not passive but leads to active experimentation, creativity and progression. Kolb suggests that reflective observation transforms concrete experiences into learning experiences. The cycle is continuous and can be joined at any stage. Reflection is more iterative and messy than a neat circle suggests.
Gibbs further developed the idea of a reflective cycle to encourage learners to systematically think about the phases of an experience or activity. One of the most important things that tutors of work-based learners can do is develop good listening skills. They need to listen and also to respond appropriately. This response might include prompts and encouragement rather than instructions. There is no point forcing ideas, plans and priorities on a work-based student, who knows their own workplace better than you do. This will mean that the tutor in turn will need to develop their own teaching methods to include knowing how to tease out important information from their students.
These facets need to be thought about, discussed and worked on in order to make future enhancements, via planned actions.
Merely learning about theory and then attempting to apply it afterwards is increasingly criticized Schon, Theory should be used and interrogated, in order to transform and enliven it. When experience, learning, theory and practice are merged there is a far greater potential for innovation than viewing any of the aspects separately. Gray , p. The results are worth the tutor walking their delicate tightrope between provoking students into thinking, looking back and being critical, whilst supporting, encouraging and guiding rather than telling.
The traditional notion of knowledge as being finite and capable of being owned or held by one party and passed on to another is increasingly challenged Freire, Students do not come to university as empty buckets waiting to be filled up with what the lecturer knows already. Guidance might include such tips: reflect strategically on where you have learned through past experiences;. However, what experienced work-based learning tutors try to do, as the core to their interaction with work-based students, is acknowledge what has been, is being and will be learned by employed students.
Teaching innovations such as massive open online courses and flipping the classroom Bergman and Sams, equally play with the order of learning and prove that the order of learning and the location of knowledge are flexible and changeable. Despite some employees having vast knowledge and expertise they can start to feel insecure about being on a university course but not being 18, with the usual academic entry requirements. Students never enrol to look back; they want to move forwards towards a qualification. As Cox , p. It is all too easy for students to feel that tutors and peers are judging them, and perhaps trying to alter and amend their practice for less than altruistic motives; the spirit of reciprocity must be highlighted.
People instinctively reflect on events, perhaps to better understand what has happened and make sense of it; the idea of learning from the past, especially trying not to repeat mistakes is well established. It is possible to reflect on what is happening in the present moment, within the context of thoughts and feelings as they occur. Some of the candidates teaching proficiency developed to the stage of using theory to inform practice, beyond differentiation and multiple intelligences.
It showed how true Pygmalion Theory really is. Toby developed a sense of belonging in a First Nations school during her participation in their professional development days where she learned about Canadian Aboriginal culture, residential schools, and made a hand drum. The findings from this study correlate with the literature on teacher self-efficacy, in that teacher candidates, who perceived themselves as confident in their lesson plan reflections and summative reflections, created engaging learning environments for their students Bordelon et al.
There is no consensus among researchers on how best to measure teacher-efficacy. Substantial quantitative research and related literature on teacher self-efficacy exists. The missing component is direct observation of the lesson by someone with teaching expertise.
The need to triangulate lesson plan, reflection, and observation was evident in the reflection from Alex, who reported self-efficacy in his math class when he successfully managed his class. His perception of self-efficacy was based on one component of teaching—managing student behavior and did not consider student learning as a result of his teaching. His lesson plans provided some insight into his teaching practices and his reflections showed he focused mostly on class management. Consistent with Tschannen-Moran et al.
Similar to previous studies Fives et al. Lower perceptions of self-efficacy were evident among the candidates when supervising teacher comments were harsh or absent. Further, the data revealed the affective component, physiological arousal , was highly dependent on the verbal persuasion, the type of feedback they received from their supervising teacher. Praise, when appropriate and detailed, and descriptive feedback from their supervising teacher strongly influenced the development of confidence and self-efficacy.
The missing source of self-efficacy in the data was vicarious experiences. In the last 6 weeks of their practicum placement when the data was collected for this study , the candidates were responsible for teaching a second day. Modeling serves as an effective tool for promoting a sense of personal efficacy. Modeling teaching vicarious experience and providing constructive feedback verbal persuasion has the potential to improve teaching skills and self-efficacy Fives et al.
Supervising teachers who share their professionalism, pedagogical ideas, and competence should be trained for the mentoring role to provide supportive feedback and effective communication. The results support the notion that engaging in reflection or self-examination is a critical stage to transformational learning Mezirow, , p.
Congruent with Conway and Clark , the candidates, through reflection, embarked on emotional inward journeys on their development toward competence and confidence. In agreement with Yost , teacher candidates acknowledged their need of the knowledge and skills for reflection and the time to reflect on their practice. Implications and Conclusions.
Effective supervision in clinical practice settings: a literature review
To assist teacher candidates in their development toward confidence and teacher self-efficacy, the following recommendations for teacher preparation program faculty and supervising teachers are based on the results from this study and a review of literature on teacher self-efficacy, teacher developmental concerns, and reflection. Teacher preparation program faculty and supervising teachers should provide instruction and assist teacher candidates in their development toward self-efficacy by using critical reflection, understanding of developmental stages of teachers, and motivational and descriptive feedback to improve practical skills.
Develop Reflection Skills. By developing reflective skills, candidates are more likely to progress beyond recording past experiences of a journal style of writing and move toward identifying problems and developing action plans for future lessons, with the goal of increasing self-efficacy in their teaching. Teacher preparation programs need to establish criteria for assessing critical reflection Larivee, ; Smith, The reflective evaluation framework, with six levels of reflection as presented by Nolan and Sim , shows potential for facilitating teacher candidates in their reflection development.
Understanding Stages of Teacher Development. It is important to enhance teacher candidates understanding of the stages of teacher development. Teacher candidates using reflection will be able to self-assess their teacher development on their journey toward self-efficacy. Supervising Teacher and Teacher Candidate Relationship. The teacher candidates frequently questioned their ability to be a teacher, or their ability to be a successful teacher.
Teacher Supervision? Professional Development? Or Both?
Supervising teachers have the potential to inspire confidence through their support and words of encouragement for motivation and descriptive feedback on how to improve their teaching practice to meet the diverse population of students in their future classrooms. Further, there needs to be a strong connection between the teacher preparation programs and practicum NCATE, Strategies for strengthening the support for candidates might include having supervising teachers and faculty meet, either face-to-face or on a social media forum and professional development and support for supervising teachers to provide guidance for effective mentorship and coaching of teacher candidates.
The evidence underscored the importance of supervising teachers providing feedback, both motivational and descriptive to assist teacher candidates in their teacher development. Future Research. However, this research represents only twenty-two teachers from one teacher preparation program, more research in different teaching contexts is required. The data collected for this research explored two perspectives—the lesson plans with planned instruction and assessment, reflections from the lessons, and a summative lesson.
The missing component was direct observation of the lessons and reflections to triangulate the findings. Researchers would benefit from considering investigations on the intersection of teacher self-efficacy, concerns-based model of teacher development, and reflection. Anderson, S. Understanding teacher change: Revisiting the concerns based adoption model.
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