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Image credit: RedMonk. This kind of technology is not only for Internet unicorns. I meet with enterprise architects every week, and I've noticed that Kafka has made a noticeable impact on typically slower-to-adopt, traditional enterprises as well. My colleagues in the enterprise and I are starting to see a common trend across companies of all backgrounds.
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They are starting to realize that to build the digital services that will disrupt and innovate, they need access to a wide stream of data, and that data must be integrated. However, the typical source of data—transactional data such as orders, inventory, and shopping carts — is being augmented with things such as page clicks, "likes," recommendations, and searches.
All of this data is deeply important to understanding customers' behaviors and frictions, and it can feed a set of predictive analytics engines that can be the differentiator for companies.
This site makes it ridiculously easy to experiment with Apache Kafka
This is where Kafka comes in. The problem they originally set out to solve was low-latency ingestion of large amounts of event data from the LinkedIn website and infrastructure into a lambda architecture that harnessed Hadoop and real-time event processing systems. The key was the "real-time" processing. At the time, there weren't any solutions for this type of ingress for real-time applications.
Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka (Amazon MSK)
There were good solutions for ingesting data into offline batch systems, but they exposed implementation details to downstream users and used a push model that could easily overwhelm a consumer. Also, they were not designed for the real-time use case. Everyone including LinkedIn wants to build fancy machine-learning algorithms, but without the data, the algorithms are useless. Getting the data from source systems and reliably moving it around was very difficult, and existing batch-based solutions and enterprise messaging solutions did not solve the problem.
Kafka was developed to be the ingestion backbone for this type of use case. Back in , Kafka was ingesting more than 1 billion events a day. Recently, LinkedIn has reported ingestion rates of 1 trillion messages a day. Let's take a deeper look at what Kafka is and how it is able to handle these use cases.
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Kafka looks and feels like a publish-subscribe system that can deliver in-order, persistent, scalable messaging. It has publishers, topics, and subscribers. It can also partition topics and enable massively parallel consumption. All messages written to Kafka are persisted and replicated to peer brokers for fault tolerance, and those messages stay around for a configurable period of time i. The key to Kafka is the log. Developers often get confused when first hearing about this "log," because we're used to understanding "logs" in terms of application logs. What we're talking about here, however, is the log data structure.
The log is simply a time-ordered, append-only sequence of data inserts where the data can be anything in Kafka, it's just an array of bytes. If this sounds like the basic data structure upon which a database is built, it is. Image credit: Apache Kafka. Databases write change events to a log and derive the value of columns from that log.
In Kafka, messages are written to a topic, which maintains this log or multiple logs — one for each partition from which subscribers can read and derive their own representations of the data think materialized view. For example, a "log" of the activity for a shopping cart could include "add item foo," "add item bar," "remove item foo," and "checkout. If a shopping cart service reads that log, it can derive the shopping cart objects that represent what's in the shopping cart: item "bar" and ready for checkout. Because Kafka can retain messages for a long time or forever , applications can rewind to old positions in the log and reprocess.
Think of the situation where you want to come up with a new application or new analytic algorithm or change an existing one and test it out against past events. Kafka can be very fast because it presents the log data structure as a first-class citizen.
What is Apache Kafka®?
It's not a traditional message broker with lots of bells and whistles. Because of these performance characteristics and its scalability, Kafka is used heavily in the big data space as a reliable way to ingest and move large amounts of data very quickly. For example, Netflix started out writing its own ingestion framework that dumped data into Amazon S3 and used Hadoop to run batch analytics of video streams, UI activities, performance events, and diagnostic events to help drive feedback about user experience. Image credit: Netflix. Open-source developers are integrating Kafka with other interesting tools.
This stack benefits from powerful ingestion Kafka , back-end storage for write-intensive apps Cassandra , and replication to a more query-intensive set of apps Cassandra again. As powerful and popular as Kafka is for big data ingestion, the "log" data structure has interesting implications for applications built around the Internet of Things, microservices, and cloud-native architectures in general. Domain-driven design concepts like CQRS and event sourcing are powerful mechanisms for implementing scalable microservices , and Kafka can provide the backing store for these concepts.
Basically, with log compaction, instead of discarding the log at preconfigured time intervals 7 days, 30 days, etc. This helps make the application very loosely coupled, because it can lose or discard logs and just restore the domain state from a log of preserved events.
Just as the evolution of the database from RDBMS to specialized stores has led to efficient technology for the problems that need it, messaging systems have evolved from the "one size fits all" message queues to more nuanced implementations or assumptions for certain classes of problems.
Both Kafka and traditional messaging have their place. Founded by the original developers of Apache Kafka, Confluent delivers the most complete distribution of Kafka with Confluent Platform. Confluent Platform improves Kafka with additional community and commercial features designed to enhance the streaming experience of both operators and developers in production, at massive scale.
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At its heart lies the humble, immutable commit log, and from there you can subscribe to it, and publish data to any number of systems or real-time applications. This unique performance makes it perfect to scale from one app to company-wide use.
An abstraction of a distributed commit log commonly found in distributed databases, Apache Kafka provides durable storage. An event streaming platform would not be complete without the ability to manipulate that data as it arrives. The Streams API within Apache Kafka is a powerful, lightweight library that allows for on-the-fly processing, letting you aggregate, create windowing parameters, perform joins of data within a stream, and more.
Perhaps best of all, it is built as a Java application on top of Kafka, keeping your workflow intact with no extra clusters to maintain.
Learn how to take full advantage of Apache Kafka, the distributed, publish-subscribe queue for handling real-time data feeds. Apache Kafka is a popular tool for developers because it is easy to pick up and provides a powerful event streaming platform complete with 4 APIs: Producer, Consumer, Streams, and Connect.
Often, developers will begin with a single use case. In short, Apache Kafka and its APIs make building data-driven apps and managing complex back-end systems simple. Kafka gives you peace of mind knowing your data is always fault-tolerant, replayable, and real-time.