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Patrick, Steven L. McKenzie and Gary N. Knoppers eds. Daniel Carroll R. Lee, Craig Y. Zephaniah Hermeneia; Minneapolis: Fortress Press, Linda M. Maloney; Collegeville, Minn. Akten des IV. Halligan eds. Daise eds. ISBN Hardcover, ISBN Brill, Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, Handbook on the Prophets Grand Rapids: Baker, Band 1, 5. Beyer eds. Yona and D. Sivan eds. Homage to Shmuel. Gordon, Cheryl A.
Brown and Michael S. Moore; Robert L. Hubbard Jr. Johnston eds. Lawson Younger eds. Cook eds. Theologies in the Old Testament. Translated by John Bowden Minneapolis: Fortress, Explorations in Bible Lands During the 19th Century. Assyria and Babylonia. Alberto Israel in the Biblical Period. Institutions, Festivals, Ceremonies, Rituals transl. Margaret Kohl; Hermeneia; Minneapolis: Fortress, Delimitation Criticism. The Syriac version of the Old Testament. Lamentations Interpretation; Louisville: John Knox, LeBeau eds.
Maloney; Collegeville, Minnesota: Liturgical Press, Cruse trans. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, Cohick eds. Barrett Conflicts and Challenges in Early Christianity. Donald A. Hagner, ed. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press, Basics of Biblical Hebrew Grammar 2nd. Klauk, Hans-Josef, B. Divine Presence amid Violence Eugene, Ore.
At Home in a Strange Land. Echoes from the Past. A Plague of Texts? O Mother, Where Art Thou? Genesis 37—50 HThK. Silent or Salient Gender? Luke adds, Luke , They shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shalt be led away captive into all nations; and Jerusalem shall be trodden down by the Gentiles, till the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled. The number of those who fell by the sword was very great. Many were slain at other places, and at other times.
By the commandment of Florus, the first author of the war, there were slain at Jerusalem 3,, Joshua. WAR, b. At Ascalon, 2, At Ptolemais, 2, At Alexandria, 50, At Joppa, when taken by Cestius Gallus, 8, In a mountain called Asamon, near Sepporis, above 2, At Damascus, 10, In a battle with the Romans at Ascalon, 10, In an ambuscade near the same place, 8, At Japha, 15, At Jotapa, 40, At Joppa, when taken by Vespasian, 4, At Gamala, 4,, besides 5, who threw themselves down a precipice. Of those who fled with John, of Gischala, 6, Of the Gadarenes, 15, slain, besides countless multitudes drowned.
Besides these, many of every age, sex, and condition, were slain in the war, who are not reckoned; but, of those who are reckoned, the number amounts to upwards of 1,,, which would have appeared incredible, if their own historian had not so particularly enumerated them. See Josephus, WAR, book ii. Newton, vol. Many also were led away captives into all nations. There were taken at Japha, 2, At Jotapa, 1, At Tarichea, 6, chosen young men, who were sent to Nero; others sold to the number of 30,, besides those who were given to Agrippa.
Of the Gadarenes were taken 2, In Idumea above 1, Many besides these were taken in Jerusalem; so that, as Josephus says, the number of the captives taken in the whole war amounted to 97, Those above seventeen years of age were sent to the works in Egypt; but most were distributed through the Roman provinces, to be destroyed in their theatres by the sword, and by the wild beasts; and those under seventeen years of age were sold for slaves. Eleven thousand in one place perished for want.
Some he caused to kill each other; some were thrown to the wild beasts; and others burnt alive. And all this was done by a man who was styled,. The darling of mankind! Thus were the Jews miserably tormented, and distributed over the Roman provinces; and continue to be distressed and dispersed over all the nations of the world to the present day. Jerusalem also was, according to the prediction of our Lord, to be trodden down by the Gentiles.
Accordingly it has never since been in the possession of the Jews. It was first in subjection to the Romans, afterwards to the Saracens, then to the Franks, after to the Mamalukes, and now to the Turks. See more in Bp. Some translate this generation, meaning the persons who were then living, that they should not die before these signs, etc. I think it more proper not to restrain its meaning to the few years which preceded the destruction of Jerusalem; but to understand it of the care taken by Divine providence to preserve them as a distinct people, and yet to keep them out of their own land, and from their temple service.
See on Mark But still it is literally true in reference to the destruction of Jerusalem. John probably lived to see these things come to pass; compare Matthew , with John ; and there were some rabbins alive at the time when Christ spoke these words who lived till the city was destroyed, viz. Rabban Simeon, who perished with the city; R. Jochanan ben Zaccai, who outlived it; R. Zadoch, R. Ismael, and others.
The war began, as Josephus says, Ant. The temple was burnt August 10, A. The city was taken September 8, in the second year of the reign of Vespasian, or the year of Christ That was the end of the siege of Jerusalem, which began, as Josephus several times observes, about the fourteenth day of the month Nisan, or our April. See War, b. It is as follows R QUOD. For this complete conquest of Jerusalem, Titus had a triumphal arch erected to his honor, which still exists.
It stand on the Via Sacra, leading from the forum to the amphitheatre. On it are represented the spoils of the temple of God, such as the golden table of the show-bread, the golden candlestick with its seven branches, the ark of the covenant, the two golden trumpets, etc. On this arch, a correct model of which, taken on the spot, now stands before me, is the following inscription On this occasion, a medal was struck with the following inscription round a laureated head of the emperor:-Imperator Julius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus.
On the obverse are represented a palm tree, the emblem of the land of Judaea; the emperor with a trophy standing on the left; Judea, under the figure of a distressed woman, sitting at the foot of the tree weeping, with her head bowed down, supported by her left hand, with the legend JUDAEA CAPTA.
Senatus Consultus. As the day was not known, in which Jerusalem should be invested by the Romans, therefore our Lord advised his disciples to pray that it might not be on a Sabbath; and as the season was not known, therefore they were to pray that it might not be in the winter; Matthew The design of these verses seems to be, that the desolation should be as general as it should be unexpected.
Then shall two men-two women-one shall be taken, and the other left. See Wakefield, and Harmer, Obs. That they were formerly thus employed, see Exodus , and the note there. See also Isaiah This advice the followers of Christ took, and therefore they escaped; the miserable Jews rejected it, and were destroyed. Let us learn wisdom by the things which they suffered. Though the day and hour be uncertain, continue always in a state of watchfulness, that he may not come upon you unawares.
He is appointed, not by himself, but by the vocation and mission of his Master. He must look on himself, not as the master of the family, but as the servant. He must be scrupulously faithful and exact in fulfilling the commands of his Master. His fidelity must be ever accompanied by wisdom and prudence. He must give the domestics-the sacred family, their food; and this food must be such as to afford them true nourishment. This must be done in its season. There are certain portions of the bread of life which lose their effect by being administered out of proper season, or to improper persons.
He shall make him ruler over all his goods. He shall receive from God a power to dispense all the blessings of the new covenant; and his word shall ever be accompanied with the demonstration of the Holy Ghost to the hearts of all that hear it. He has little or no faith in the speedy coming of Christ, either to punish for wickedness, or to pardon and sanctify those who believe. It may be, he does not outwardly profess this, but he says it in his heart, and God searches his heart, and knows that he professes to teach what he does not believe. He governs with an absolute dominion, oppressing his colleagues and doing violence to the followers of Christ.
And shall begin to smite, etc. He leads an irregular life does not love the company of the children of God, but eats and drinks with the drunkards, preferring the tables of the great and the rich, whose god is their belly, and thus feeds himself without fear. Great God! He shall come in a day in which he looked not for him. A separation from the communion of saints, and from all the gifts which he has abused: this answers to the abuse of his authority in the Church of Christ. He shall have tears and eternal pains, in company with all such hypocrites as himself: and this answers to his voluptuous life, pampering the flesh at the expense of his soul.
That it was an ancient mode of punishment is evident from what Herodotus says: that Sabacus, king of Ethiopia, had a vision, in which he was commanded, to cut in two, all the Egyptian priests, lib. And in lib. See Raphelius also, in his notes from Herodotus and Polybius. This kind of punishment was used among the Persians: see Daniel , Story of Susannah, ver. See also 2 Samuel , and 1 Chronicles It may also have reference to that mode of punishment in which the different members were chopped off seriatim, first the feet, then the hands, next the legs, then the arms, and lastly the head.
This mode of punishment is still in use among the Chinese. But we find an exact parallel among the Turks, in the following passage from W. London 4to. And this is the punishment for manslaughter. This is the very same punishment, and for the same offense, as that mentioned by our Lord, the killing of a fellow servant-one of the same nation, and of the same religion. THE reader has no doubt observed, in the preceding chapter, a series of the most striking and solemn predictions, fulfilled in the most literal, awful, and dreadful manner. Christ has foretold the ruin of the Jewish people, and the destruction of their polity; and in such a circumstantial manner as none else could do, but He, under whose eye are all events, and in whose hands are the government and direction of all things.
Indeed he rather declared what he would do , than predicted what should come to pass. And the fulfillment has been as circumstantial as the prediction. Does it not appear that the predicted point was so literally referred to by the occurring fact, by which it was to have its accomplishment, as to leave no room to doubt the truth of the prediction, or the certainty of the event by which it was fulfilled? Thus the wisdom of God, as also his justice and providence, have had a plenary manifestation.
But this wisdom appears, farther, in preserving such a record of the prediction, and such evidence of its accomplishment, as cannot possibly be doubted. The New Testament, given by the inspiration of God, and handed down uncorrupted from father to son, by both friends and enemies, perfect in its credibility and truth, inexpugnable in its evidences, and astonishingly circumstantial in details of future occurrences, which the wisdom of God alone could foreknow-that New Testament is the record of these predictions.
The history of the Romans, written by so many hands; the history of the Jews, written by one of themselves; triumphal arches, coins, medals, and public monuments of different kinds, are the evidence by which the fulfillment of the record is demonstrated. Add to this the preservation of the Jewish people; a people scattered through all nations, yet subsisting as a distinct body, without temple, sacrifices, or political government; and who, while they attempt to suppress the truth, yet reluctantly stand forth as an unimpeachable collateral evidence, that the solemn record, already alluded to, is strictly and literally true!
Who that has ever consulted the Roman historians of the reigns of Vespasian and Titus, the history of Josephus, and the 24th chapter of St. Here then is one portion of Divine Revelation that is incontrovertibly and absolutely proved to be the truth of God. The existence of his revelation, the continuance of a Christian Church upon earth, the certainty that there is one individual saved from his sins by the grace of the Gospel, and walking worthy of his vocation are continued proofs and evidences that he is still the same; that he will fulfill every jot and tittle of that word on which he has caused thee to trust; and save to the uttermost all that come unto the Father by him.
The word of the Lord endureth for ever; and they who trust in him shall never be confounded. As I have scarcely any opinion to give concerning this book on which I could wish any of my readers to rely, I shall not enter into any discussion relative to the author, or the meaning of his several visions and prophecies ; but for general information refer to Dr. Lardner, Michaelis, and others. Various attempts have been made by learned men to fix the plan of this work ; but even this few agree. I shall produce some of the chief of these : and first, that of Wetstein, which is the most singular of the whole.
He supposes the Book of the Apocalypse to have been written a considerable time fore the destruction of Jerusalem. The events described from the fourth chapter to the d he supposes to refer to the Jewish war, and to the civil commotions which took place in Italy while Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian were contending for the empire. These contentious and destructive wars occupied the space of about three years and a half, during which prorfessor Wetstein thinks the principal events took place which are recorded in this book.
This prophecy, which predicts the calamities which God should send on the enemies the Gospel, is divided into two parts. The first is contained in the closed book ; the second, in the open book. The first concerns the earth and the third part, i. Judea and the Jewish nation. The second concerns many peoples, and nations, and tongues, and kings, chap. The Roman Empire. The book written within and without, and sealed with seven seals, the bill of divorce sent from God to the Jewish nation. The crowned conqueror on the white horse armed with a bow, chap.
The red horse, ver. The Sicarii and robbers in Judea, in the time of the proconsuls Felix and Festus. The black horse, ver. The famine under Claudius. The pale horse, ver. The plague which followed the robberies and the famine. The souls of those who were slain, ver.
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The Christians in Judea, who were persecuted, and were now about to be avenged. The great earthquake, ver. The commotions which preceded the Jewish rebellion. The servants of God from every tribe, sealed in their foreheads, chap. The Christians taken under the protection of God, and warned by the prophets to flee immediately from the land.
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The silence for half an hour, chap. The short truce granted at the solicited of king Agrippa. Then follows the rebellion itself. The trees are burnt, ver. The fields and villages, and unfortified places of Judea which first felt the bad effects of the sedition. The burning mountain cast into the sea which in consequence became blood, ver.
The burning star falling into the rivers, and making the waters bitter, chap. The slaughter of the Jews at Caesarea and Scythopolis. The eclipsing of the. The anarchy of the Jewish Commonwealth. The locusts like scorpions hurting men, chap. The word which was used almah has two meanings: never had sex with a man and also a young maiden in general. As proof that the second word was understood as "virgin" also, the Greek translation of the Old Testament called the Septuagint used the word parthenos , which only means virgin.
Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties p. He says, "They are, however, refuted by this consideration, that nothing of the nature of a sign can possibly come out of what is a daily occurrence, the pregnancy and child-bearing of a young woman. A virgin mother is justly deemed to be proposed by God as a sign Q: In Isa , since the Hebrew words ha almah could mean "the young maiden" as well as "the virgin", why does Matt say Isaiah speaks of a virgin having a son?
A: Many prophecies have a dual fulfillment. In particular Isaiah uses a Hebrew word almah that can be translated "young maiden" or "virgin"; it is the same word used of the child Miriam, who was both, in Exodus There was another Hebrew word for "virgin", betulah like the Akkadian word batultu , but that was not used here. The prophecy was given in B. One reason betulah might not have been used is because in ancient usage it did not always mean virgin either. For example, betulah means a woman who is married in Joel and Jeremiah 25 multiple times.
This prophecy also referred to a virgin birth. Therefore, while the Septuagint translation could not translate both meanings, it proves that the Jewish translators fully accepted the "virgin" meaning. Also, Hard Sayings of the Bible p. This means the sign is for the entire house of David, not just Ahaz. See The Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties p. Q: In Isa , could the immediate fulfillment of this prophecy be the birth of Hezekiah, the son of Ahaz? A: No, because Hezekiah would be about ten years old at the time of the prophecy. See Hard Sayings of the Bible p.
Q: In Isa , who was the woman in travail at this time? A: This prophecy has a dual fulfillment. The ultimate fulfillment is Mary the mother of Jesus. Conclusion: Today we cannot tell who the woman was for the immediate fulfillment, except that the son was not Hezekiah. However, the ultimate fulfillment was with Mary and Jesus, as Matthew says.
Q: In Isa , does this support the concept of an age of accountability? A: It supports it, but does not prove it. There is an age, which can be different for different children, when they know good from evil. Romans shows that sin still occurs, but it is not counted as transgression when the person was not able to know it was wrong. Many Christians think babies and young children who die, since they have not committed any intentional sins, will go to heaven through Jesus. Jesus is still needed as their Savior to cleans their nature and forgive their unintentional sins.
An alternate view is that immediately after death, people who die without the knowledge to be able to accept or reject Jesus will be given an opportunity to make the same decision they would have made if they were alive. Support but not proof for this is found in 2 Peter and 2 Peter A third view is that since both the just and unjust will be resurrected during the Millennium, those who had no opportunity before will have an opportunity then.
You can read about the Millennium in Revelation in Q: In Isa , what is the significance of God shaving with a razor? A: There are to "points" to "face". A razor gives a close shave, and they would have a close call with the Assyrian knife right next to their skin. In that culture, it was an insult to shave a man's beard against his will, as 2 Samuel indicates.
The nation would be humiliated by the Assyrians. A: Isaiah does not say God is barber, but that metaphorically that God will shave the beards of the ungodly Israelites. Q: In Isa , what exactly is being prophesied here? A: This refers to a gradual climate change in Israel. Israel today, without irrigation, would be more arid than it was in the times before Christ. Q: In Isa should this word be translated as "scroll" or "tablet"? A: The Hebrew word here, gillayon , simply means a large flat writing surface, so it could be translated either way.
Q: In Isa , who is the prophetess? Did she prophecy too? Q: In Isa , what are the waters of Shiloah? This life-sustaining stream was contrasted with the fierce flood of the Euphrates River. Q: In Isa , how does the word "Immanuel" relate to Jesus? A: Immanuel here means "God be with us", and the context is one of desperation, as in "God help us. The strong waters of the Euphrates refer to the nation of Assyria, and possibly the Babylonians, that would almost drown Judah, "up to its neck".
Reading Isaiah a, and stopping in the middle of verse 8, one could get the impression that this "flood" of the army will be so severe that Judah will be finished forever. Isaiah b are a vivid contrast to the preceding verses. Those invading nations would be shattered. A: There was a conspiracy. Today, there are also people who see a conspiracy behind everything.
A: This is an archaic word for a trap. Q: In Isa , how is God a sanctuary? A: While a sanctuary is a holy place, that is not the primary point here. Rather, God is a refuge, such that when one seeks refuge in God as his or her sanctuary, God will shelter them. Q: In Isa , when was this prophecy fulfilled? A: This prophecy had both a direct fulfillment within Isaiah's lifetime, when Assyria conquered Damascus and Samaria and a future fulfillment.
Q: In Isa , what exactly is wrong with asking for advice from fortune-tellers and spiritists? A: God said not to do so. We can see at least two reasons why God would say so. We can trust God to tell us everything we need to know, though it might not always be everything we want to know. Trusting in fortune telling or spirits is not trusting our lives to God. Trusting in mediums and spirits also open us up to the demonic world of the occult. Jeremiah , in the context of idolatry, says, "My people have committed two sins: They have forsaken me, the spring of living water, and have dug their own cisterns, broken cisterns that cannot hold water.
Q: In Isa , does this relate to Mormonism? A: This relates to all who seek advice from the occult and the dead, not just Mormonism. However, it relates to Mormons in at least three ways. Glass-looking was an occultic practice in the nineteenth century, when a person would claim to be able to find buried treasure by looking in a glass. This was so common, that in New York there was an ordinance against this. Joseph Smith, Jr. Court records have been found which confirm this. Peep stone. Joseph Smith went on from glass-looking to claiming to translate the Book of Mormon by looking at a stone in a hat.
The Mormon Book of Abraham was claimed to be translated the same way, from some ancient Egyptian papyrii. We have these papyrii today, and needless to say, Joseph's translation was a fraud. Joseph even wrote an Egyptian Alphabet and Grammar , where he apparently tried to teach others his version of "reformed Egyptian". Q: Do Isa and Isa belong together, or was Mt incorrect to put these together? A: They belong together because Isaiah is a transition with both sections.
Admittedly Isaiah and do relate, because Isaiah speaks of people in darkness and Isaiah speaks of no more darkness. However, Isaiah speaks of people who will be driven away into darkness, Isaiah says there will be no more darkness for Zebulun and Naphtali, and Isaiah says how the people who were in darkness will see a great light. It is interesting that Asimov is trying to say that those who were in gloom will have it lifted in Isaiah does not relate to those who were in darkness and have seen a great light in the very next verse.
Q: In Isa , how was it fulfilled that the Galilee of the Gentiles would be honored? A: Jesus spent a great deal of time in this land, which was east of the Sea of Galilee. This was explicitly fulfilled according to Matthew Q: In Isa , does this refer to the Christ? However, no Jews in ancient times every wrote that they held this apparently modern theory. Q: In Isa , how did Jesus bring peace, since the world is not peaceful today?
A: In His first coming Jesus gave us peace within out hearts. It is not until His second coming that Jesus will make the fighting stop and bring peace to this world. Of course, ultimately there will be peace in heaven. A: Modalists and Oneness Pentecostals often bring up this objection. Jesus is the father of our salvation, and the Father is in Jesus, but they are still distinct. Regardless, Isaiah is referring to a son, that is the child that is born. Of course, as I am both a son and a father, the Son can be the father of our eternal life without being His own father.
Again, the context answers, No! None of the idolatrous Gentile nations formed a god before Jehovah, because no one existed before Jehovah. But that does not mean that Jehovah never caused to exist anyone who is properly referred to as a god. Ps , 6; John , NW. There is only One Lord for us to obey. They try to say that Jesus is a second lesser "might" god.
They say that Jesus is not a God in worship, or prayer to Him, but only in title [and an empty title at that! In churches of God, we honor only God. See When Cultists Ask p. Q: In Isa , is there evidence that Jews considered this to be a prophecy of the Messiah? The Yemenite Midrash and the Pereq Shalom p. Q: In Isa , why are people fuel for the fire?
A: The people refuse to follow God, and they are objects of God's wrath Ephesians Perhaps the people themselves have crossed a "line of despair" Francis Schaeffer's term and they themselves would realize that when the Assyrians and later Babylonians came, that fuel for the fire is all that they were.
We are all created in the image of God and valuable in God's sight. However, for those who will never follow God the reprobate they are just fuel for the fire. As a side note, the false religion of Hinduism teaches that the fire god Agni "cooks people" after they die. Rig Veda Hindus desire to rejoin the cosmic flame, where all individuality is destroyed. Q: In Isa , does this refer to cannibalism? This is not cannibalism, but self-consumption to two ways. Spiritually, both individuals and the people collectively were hurting themselves and their children by their continued sin.
Q: In Isa , how do people make unjust laws? A: Here is what one powerful government leader said, "It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their selfish purposes. The source of the quote is interesting. Andrew Jackson was the one who ordered the U. When it was threatened to bring a lawsuit against this in the Supreme Court, Jackson mocked at justice Proverbs saying, what army do they have? In many cases, leaders either are not aware they are making unjust laws, or they conveniently forget justice when it is not important to them. One can obey the letter of the law, but violate the spirit of the law.
One could not specifically violate any Old Testament command, but still fail to follow what the Bible says about not oppressing others. God being pure and holy, as He is described in the Bible, does not restrict Him from working all things as part of His plan Ephesians See Baffling Bible Questions Answered p. Q: In Isa , how did God punish the lions of Assyria? A: In at least three ways.
The people of Assyria were defeated, never to rise again. They were not all killed though. Tatian, the Christian writer and later Gnostic heretic was an Assyrian. The Assyrian army was wiped out. The king of Assyria died. On a secondary note, lions were a symbol of the Assyrian Empire. The Persians loved to hunt lions, and lions became extinct in the Mideast after the Persians came to power. Q: In Isa , what is unusual about the style of these verses?
A: These verses are deliberately written in the style of an Assyrian victory inscription. Q: In Isa , how does an axe raise itself against the axe-user like the Assyrians raised themselves against God? A: Just as it is futile, ungrateful, and ridiculous for a non-living axe to lift itself against its user, the Assyrians were trying to oppose God.
Yet the strongest Assyrian warriors, clad in the best armor, could not withstand bacteria of a plague. Isaiah says that God would send a wasting disease upon the Assyrian warriors.
A: The NIV has a different meaning. It says the remaining trees [people] will be so few that a child could write down how many there were. Q: In Isa , what happened to the "ten lost tribes" of Israel? A: As pure salt is "lost" when it is mixed with mud, the people of the ten tribes of Israel assimilated into the other Mideast peoples. In particular, many of the Israelites who remained in Israel intermarried with the others brought in, and became Samaritans. When the Jews returned from Babylon, there were members of the ten tribes among the returnees, too.
This Hebrew word sa'ar, meaning "remnant" or "survivors", was how the returning Jews were to think of themselves. As believers in a fallen world, we can think of ourselves as a remnant too. A: Three points to consider in the answer. Jerusalem was never captured or destroyed by the Assyrians. Also, this might have been written after the unsuccessful siege. Regardless, this prophecy would be forever true after that time. Q: In Isa , does this refer to the future Messiah? God will uphold him with [the spirit of might and will give him] a throne of glory and a crown of [holiness] and many-coloured garments And Magog For example, slaying the wicked, lion and ox lying down together, etc.
Some Answered Questions p. While Christ fulfilled some in His first coming, some will be fulfilled in His second coming. Q: In Isa , how does Jesus reprove with equity for the meek and still rule the earth with the rod of his wrath? A: Jesus will come again and make war. His power in wrath will provide protection for Jerusalem. Q: In Isa , how is righteousness the girdle of the Branch? Only a man could be a mediator representing mankind. Only a sinless person could pay the price for and be the atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world 1 John Q: In Isa , when will these animals all get along?
A: This will happen during the Millennium, which is the 1, year reign of Christ mentioned in Revelation They will have no reason to fear any danger from one another. God has the power to change the diet of any animals as he wishes. Q: In Isa , when will God reward the remnant "a second time"? Q: In Isa , why does the Bible speak of the four corners of the earth? A: This is just an expression, which we still use today, for the points of a compass.
Q: In Isa , when will the regathered Israelites swoop down on the lands of Philistia, Edomites, Moab, and subject the Ammonites? A: The verbs here imply military victory. There are at least two possibilities. Prior to the Messiah reigning , the Jews will conquer these lands. Philistia includes the land of the modern Gaza strip. Edom and Moab are in the country of Jordan, and the Ammonites lived in the lands now known as Jordan and Syria. After the Messiah comes to reign , this conquest will occur. This might happen at the end of the Millennium when Satan stirs up the nations against Israel.
Q: In Isa , what is the Egyptian Sea? During Roman times, one key reason for the rapid spread of Christianity was the excellent Roman roads that enabled extensive and rapid travel. Remember that there were few long roads in existence in Isaiah's time. An alternate view is that this is the same highway mentioned in Isaiah , which is for the redeemed, probably during the Millennium mentioned in Revelation Q: In Isa , how do the joyous draw water out of the wells of salvation? A: God not only saved us, He sustains our spirit. We can come to Him for comfort, love, and in high spirits or low.
Jesus says He gives living water in John Q: Does Isa , support the Catholic concept of stores of grace? As God sustained the Israelites during the Exodus, He is sufficient to sustain us from His infinite, never-running dry wells of salvation. Do not settle for shallow, finite wells of questionable purity from beings who are not God. Isaiah says that God is our salvation, not Mary or anyone else. We respect believers who have gone before us, but even they would not want us to do things approaching worship of them.
Q: In Isa ,, was this permanent destruction of Babylon fulfilled prior to Christ, or will this be fulfilled in the future? A: Christians have three interpretations. Past Fulfillment: Babylon was captured by the Persians and Medes, though it was not destroyed at that time. Babylon became on of the capitals of the Persian Empire. Later Babylon rebelled and was destroyed and not rebuilt. Future Fulfillment: Though Babylon is not inhabited now, the prophecy has not been fulfilled yet. Babylon will be rebuilt, and then it will be destroyed in the end times in Revelation 18 and Dual Fulfillment: This prophecy is fulfilled already.
The city of Babylon is already destroyed and will never be inhabited again. The Babylon in Revelation represents a false religious system, centered at a city of seven hills such as Rome. It will be destroyed in the end times. Q: In Isa , is God cruel? A: Make no mistake, the Day of the Lord is cruel.
God has great wrath, but God is also just. Q: In Isa , why does it say the Medes did not care for silver or gold? A: The Scythians, a people related to the Medes, amassed huge hordes of gold. In contrast, the Medes and Persians did not raid for booty like the Scythians. The Medes and Persians were out to defeat the Lydian and Babylonian empires, and to forge their own Empire. Instead of plundering all of the wealth out of their subject peoples, as the Assyrians did, the Medes and Persians cultivated loyal subjects, though they taxed them.
Q: In Isa , has this prophecy about Jacob been fulfilled already? A: No, the Jews never made servants of their captors on the scale Isaiah speaks. This likely will occur during the millennium mentioned in Revelation Q: In Isa , what does the phrase, "in the sides of the north" mean? A: The Hebrew word for "north" and "Zaphon" were the same.
Mount Zaphon was a mountain in Syria sacred to Baal. Worshippers believed their gods lived on Mount Zaphon, like Greeks believed their gods lived on Mount Olympus. While Isaiah simply might have meant north, it instead might be implicitly saying the true God is greater than all the gods said to live on Mount Zaphon. This Hebrew word is difficult to translate, and some took this as "golden city" because of the Aramaic not Hebrew word for gold. However, the Dead Sea scroll 1Q Isa shows that translators probably confused d and r, and this is why the Septuagint and Syriac read this as golden city.
Q: In Isa , who was the king of Babylon? A: Some think this is simply a present or future king of Babylon. Q: In Isa , what is this saying about the dead? A: This metaphoric language says the ungodly dead people were waiting for Babylon to permanently join them. A: The Hebrew term here is "shining one", and the name Lucifer means "shining one", so Jerome, in translating the Vulgate, put the name Lucifer in here. A: It almost certainly refers to Satan, also called Lucifer. The pride and cruelty here do not fit any king of Babylon from Isaiah's time onward.
Here were the kings of Babylon. Belshazzar Bel-shar-usur co-regent B. Persians capture Babylon. Gubaru, a Persian general, is called the king of Babylon. Gubaru was actually a former Babylonian governor who defected to the Persians. Finally, in Luke Jesus is alludes to Isaiah , except for lightning instead of dawn-bringer Heosphoros , so Jesus identified this as Lucifer.
However, Baffling Bible Questions Answered p. Q: In Isa , why do children die for the sins of the fathers, since Ezek , says they should not? A: Four points to consider in the answer. It did not say the children had the guilt of their fathers. Though, if they participated in the same sins, they would have the same guilt. God was not slaughtering them. In this life, evil people often kill other evil people and their children. Ezekiel 18 refers to God not killing a son because of the guilt of his father's sin. Many times in this life people are killed unjustly because of others' sinful actions, as Ezekiel shows.
The NIV says offspring and descendants. Q: In Isa , what animal is mentioned here? A: The KJV translates this as "bittern", a type of bird. There is some uncertainty as to what animal the Hebrew meant. The NIV translates this as "owls". The NKJV translates this as "porcupine". Q: In Isa , what does the word "burden" mean here? A: This was a term for a prophecy. One can carry a burden for some one else, and the prophet was carrying a heavy burden message from God that he just had to speak.
He correctly adds that the RSV translation "adder" could not be correct, as the adder snake was only present in continental Europe and the Island of Britain. Q: In Isa , why are the Philistines mentioned here? A: It might be because the Philistines revolted against Assyria in B. The Assyrians came and reconquered Philistia soon after that. This refers to a house of worship, or a temple as the NIV translates it. Q: In Isa , what is the significance of the fords of Arnon? A: This means that his innermost being is lamenting.
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A: This occurred soon after the prophecy when the Assyrians came to Judah. While we do not know of Judah's relations with Moab, we know that Hezekiah, king of Judah, was strong enough to defeat the Philistines and imprison the Philistine king Padi of Ekron. A: This King James Version expression means a hired servant. A hired person would be under contract for a period of time. Q: In Isa , what exactly happened to Damascus and the cities of Syria? A: Isaiah lived a long life, and this may have been written prior to B.
Here is some history up to that time. Assyrians besiege Damascus and leave after Damascus pays heavy tribute. Damascus, Tyre, and Israel combine forces against the Assyrians, and attempt to force Judah to join them. This was towns in 16 districts according to the Assyrian Annals. Damascus and some other cities join Hamath, which was never conquered by the Assyrians, in rebelling.
Sargon II crushes the revolt at Qarqar. Just like Sargon resettled other peoples in Israel, Sargon settled exiles from the cities of Papa, Lullukna, and other places in Damascus. We here nothing of Damascus until around B. C, except that it had Assyrian governors in B. Damascus turned over to Parmenio, a general of Alexander the Great, without a battle. Q: In Isa , what are some reasons people forget their Savior?
A: People sometimes have a short memory when it comes to gratitude. They can forget their Savior in at least five ways. Pride can make people forget they need saving. Time is important to set aside for God. Worries of this world drown out their devotion for God. Sin keeps them from enjoying God's pleasure.
Fear of persecution, or loss of job or prestige. Isaiah says that since they forgot God their Savior, God will "remember" to keep blessing from them. Haggai also mentions how the people built their own paneled houses, forgetting God's house, and God "assisted them with remembering" by keeping prosperity from them. A: It means dispersed or divided. However the NIV translates this as "flower". Q: In Isa , when did this civil war among Egyptians occur? A: The Libyans of the 22nd Dynasty B. Q: In Isa , when would the Nile and other rivers dry up? This is true in at least three ways.
Less rain in East central Africa would mean a year of famine for Egypt. Long term , the land of Egypt and the Sahara has become more arid. Metaphorically , the political power of Egypt would greatly diminish. Q: In Isa , when and how was the land of Judah a terror unto Egypt? The Assyrians, and the nation of Israel also fought Egypt, though they did not conquer it.
Q: In Isa , when did five cities of Egypt speak the language of Canaan? A: First, it does not say they will speak "Canaanitish", but rather the language that is spoken in Canaan. After the fall of Jerusalem, many Jews fled to Egypt. During the time of the early church, tradition says Mark was one of the first to evangelize Egypt.
He and other Christians were so successful that Alexandria in Egypt, became one of the four main centers of Christianity, at least as important as Jerusalem. Q: In Isa , which city was called the city of destruction? A: Some manuscripts say the "city of the sun", because the Hebrew word for destruction is almost the same as the word for sun.
Heliopolis, or city of the sun, is most likely the city referred to here. A: this verse predicts one or both of the following: Prior to Jesus, many Jews moved to Egypt and practiced Judaism there, including some Jews who translated the Bible into Greek. The Jewish historian Josephus alludes to this verse when he says, "The chief reason why he [the son of Onia the high priest] was desirous so to do, was, that he relived upon the prophet Isaiah, who lived above six hundred years before, and foretold that there certainly was to be a temple built to Almighty God in Egypt by a man that was a Jew.
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A: This could be taken in two ways. Spiritually, after the time of Christ, Egypt was a center of Christianity. Politically , the Egyptians joyfully greeted Alexander of Macedon. They viewed him as a friendly liberator, freed the Egyptians from Persian rule. Yet Egypt had always been an independent country, not a subject nation.
That would change when Nebuchadnezzar conquered Egypt. The Persians too would conquer Egypt, though Egypt would rebel a number of times under the Persians. Q: In Isa , when was the highway between Egypt and Assyria built? A: In Isaiah's time, it would seem incredible that Egyptians would want to peacefully travel to Assyria and vice versa. Egypt and Assyria were both under the Persian Empire, though Egypt often rebelled. They were both together under Alexander of Macedon, and by Roman times there were very good roads linking much of the ancient Mideast. A: This was the title for the commander of the Assyrian army.
The NIV translates this as "the supreme commander".
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The NKJV margin says "commander in chief". Q: In Isa , why did God command Isaiah to walk around without clothes? The Muslim Ahmad Deedat brought this up. A: First of all, Isaiah was living in his own culture, not ours. Second, the Wycliffe Bible Dictionary p.