Translating Data into Information to Improve Teaching and Learning
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For analyzing distance online translator training advantages and disadvantages of it is shown. Every translation activity has one or more specific purposes and whichever they may be; the main aim of translation is to serve as a cross-cultural bilingual communication vehicle among peoples. In the past few decades, this activity has developed because of rising international trade, increased migration, globalization, the recognition of linguistic minorities, and the expansion of the mass media and technology.
Translator training is a subject which has been widely discussed and many diverse approaches have been put forward. However little research has been done to investigate translation training courses and even less data has been gathered to validate any claims as to the effectiveness or pedagogical value of these approaches to translator education Askehave Improving pedagogy is the constant aim of any diligent instructor, and therefore of any translation instructor, too.
The requirements and the conditions of modern life, as well as the impact of globalization, are challenges for teaching, as learners need to learn new skills in order to be able to confront them. The last half of the twentieth century was characterized by revolutions in information and communication, and technology that have influenced numerous professions, including translation. The development of new information and communication technology influences an ever-changing professional reality that requires almost constant updating.
In , James Holmes published for the first time his canonical essay on the nature of Translation Studies. It put forward a conceptual scheme that identified and interrelated many of the things that can be done in translation studies, envisaging an entire future discipline and effectively stimulating work aimed at establishing that discipline. The third branch beside its theoretical and descriptive branches is the branch of applied translation studies.
Thus, Amparo Hurtado Albir said in her prologue to Allison Beeby on his work on the teaching of translation from Spanish into English said: Beeby, Both theoretical and descriptive translation studies have multiplied in recent years but perhaps the advances have been fewer in applied translation studies translation training, translation aids, translation criticism and evaluation. Others, like Mayoral Asensio have declared that Translation Studies cannot at present offer enough means or tools for translation teacher to enhance their methodology so as to help students find better solutions for solving translation problems or to instruct translators more effectively Asensio, , p.
Be that as it may, new avenues of research and additional momentum are always to be welcomed in any discipline. Stagnation in educational translation theory can be damaging for students and teaching institutions. The way we see it, teachers and theorists of translation pedagogy should always be on the lookout for new didactic strategies and methodologies in a continuous effort to enhance the teaching and learning process. The main theoretical principles of distance education will then be linked to translation education in particular and what is being done now in teaching translation from a distance.
In exploring the potential use of technologies as a medium for learning, authors and academics have looked at the challenges for instructors, and learners. Before we proceeded to evaluation of distance online translator training, we needed to come to a common understanding about aspects of quality and the different perspectives available in the design of online and distance learning environments.
In Ancient times distances certainly seemed greater and more difficult to surmount than are today. The seekers of knowledge had to travel to the source in order to get it or, like the traveling rhetoricians and old sophists of the Classic world who walked far and wide around Greece taking their vis persuadendi skill or faculty of persuading to villages and cities, instructing students here and there for a fee, the source would come to them.
The distance was then bridged by the teacher himself or, more often, by the student. Letters written by the wise and distributed slowly through the land to reach their destination and their readers' hands were also the earliest instances of distance teaching Alcala, The experts in distance education tend to sequence the various stages of the history of this teaching method by closely following the phases of development undergone by the means used therein.
Hence, the means used to fill the separation existing between learner and teacher determine to a great extent the arrangement and study of the history of distance education Aretio, :. Laying aside the earliest examples of instructive correspondence of ancient and classical civilizations and later periods, the first known instance of a teaching correspondence course in the West dates back to , when a Mr. Caleb Philipps, professor of short hand, published an advertisement in the Boston Gazette offering teaching materials and tutorials.
However, the first testimony of an organized correspondence course in which there was bidirectional communication comes from England, in , when Isaac Pitman initiated a short hand course, wherein he sent a passage of the Bible to students and these would send it back in full transcription. As a further instance we may recall the pioneering milestone in distance language teaching laid in by Charles Toussaint and Gustav Langenscheidt, who started up the first European institution of distance learning, the Institut Toussaint et Langenscheidt in Germany.
This is the first known instance of the use of materials for independent language study. From those early stages, correspondence institutions appeared in the United States and other European countries Alcala, Here the term "multimedia" refers to the use of several means media to reach the students and provide instruction. According to Aretio, this stage is a product of the s, especially around the key year , when the British Open University was founded Printed materials are joined by audiotapes, videotapes, radio and TV broadcasts, telephone, etc.
In this stage, the theorists of distance education focused their attention in the design and production of teaching materials and the interaction between learners and teachers took on a secondary role Aretio, , p. Aretio , p. This decade marks the arrival of modern telecommunications in the education scene. Computers increasingly became an everyday tool reaching more homes and institutions of higher learning.
Computer aided teaching was the great development and integration was the key word: integration of technical and educational means and instruments. These are some of the features of the period:. This stage has received several names: fourth generation distance teaching, virtual campus, virtual teaching, flexible learning model, etc.
It is the Internet age. The World Wide Web reveals itself as the great breakthrough. Teachers and learners can communicate faster and even in real time. But, as Aretio points out, the most important contribution of the arrival of the Internet has been the surmounting of one of the traditional obstacles of distance learning: the lack of two-way interaction or bidirectional communication.
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In traditional correspondence teaching, teachers had a hard time obtaining feedback from their students, quickly, promptly and directly. In this vein, some authors are foreseeing the beginning of a fifth generation teaching or education Taylor, and Ogata y Yano, , quoted in Aretio, , p This future model has been referred to as the flexible intelligent learning generation, in which the computer would take the place of the teacher as tutor and mentor of distance learners and a completely automated response system. Thus, it would be possible to cut down costs for staff and faculty. Before the evaluation of distance online translator training, we needed to come to a common understanding about different aspects and the perspectives available in the design of online and distance learning environments.
For a long time, distance learning by way of correspondence coerces was the only way to reach students who were physically separated from their instructor. With the arrival of the technologies that provide the variety of the media connecting students to instructors, peers and learning materials, distance learning today has to address the complexities of online learning environments and meet the demands online learning places on students and instructors. New technology makes new ways of learning possible. A new computer and communication technology has emerged together with the software application such as browsers and other clients; distance learning has become synonymous with learning online.
However, while distance learning carries the interpretive baggage of its principal defining characteristic, i. Overall, it can be stated that online learning uses technology to breach the distance where there is a separation of student and instructor in time and space. The following statements best reflect our convictions about learning that online and distance learning environments should bring to life. Content perspective. Here are three scenarios that often come together in the design of online and distance learning environments:.
Students go to class and meet instructors and classmates face-to-face but they also learn independently using e-based or print-based resources depending on the best possible fit between the learning material and the technology medium. Computer-based learning and Web-based learning is offered as part of the learning experience to varying degrees. Students spend time on computers and have a lot of learning software available to them. They also have Internet connections and instructors build web-based learning into the process. Students go to class and meet instructors and classmates face-to-face but they also complement this learning to a higher degree with web-based learning via an online component available to them outside of the classroom and scheduled hours.
Students use the Internet to pick up assignments and documents, participate in discussion board rooms, take quizzes, check their grades, consult a calendar and do other things to help them with their learning. One of the major recent developments in the translation industry is the introduction of computer technology. It was shown that both students and teachers were aware of the need to familiarize themselves with the new translation technologies. The way translators work has changed: commissions arrive by email, and translators are expected to use the internet, electronic dictionaries, translation memory tools, electronic corpora and concordance software, etc.
In short, the set of basic skills required of a translator at the beginning of the Third Millennium looks very different from what it was only fifteen years ago.
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No experience in editing was necessary — agencies or publishers dealt with copyediting, proofing and formatting. Today the picture is completely different: a professional translator has to add literacy in computer technology to the set of skills necessary to tackle most modern-day translation jobs. As far as the training of translators is concerned, research on the nature and development of translation competence has shown how part of this competence what some scholars have referred to as translator competence consists of procedural skills, many of which have to do with the way translators learn to interact with computers and digital resources.
The introduction of electronic means of communication into the teaching-learning process has conferred special importance on virtual environments as pedagogy advances.
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The possibilities of these tools have not yet been sufficiently explored. The first reason is the lack of knowledge among instructors about how to merge their methodology with electronic tools. Pedagogy of translation in term of translator training is still quite neglected. Assuming there is a need to revitalize the didactics of translation as a whole, the study and practice of distance education or distance translator training comes in as an exciting and promising laboratory for testing and developing innovative and effective training.
Translating Data into Information to Improve Teaching and Learning | Taylor & Francis Group
If one sees translation pedagogy as a thriving field of research and application of theoretical principles resulting from that research, a more careful consideration of the potential benefits of distance translator education cannot be overlooked, from a theoretical, practical, institutional and even economic point of view. With the growing presence of new technological means, the power for innovation broadens even more Alcala, Nowadays we witness great shifts in the field of teaching methods.
Those shifts affect the way of teaching and learning as well as the basic rules that underlie it. For instance, learners become responsible for their own learning process, which is supposed to be a lifelong one, the contents taught should be closely related to the later professional environment, and learners must be enabled to achieve autonomous learning and self-assessment. The impact of the new technologies and globalization and internationalization is going hand in hand with each other. Facebook Twitter Pinterest.
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View Information Sheet. From state and Common Core tests to formative and summative assessments in the classroom, teachers are awash with data.
Reviewing the data can be time-consuming, and the work of translating data into real change can seem overwhelming. Field-tested and fine-tuned with professional learning communities around the United States, the Data-Action Model is a teacher-friendly, systematic process for reviewing and responding to data in cycles of two to nine weeks.
This powerful tool enables you and your teacher team to. With easy-to-use templates and protocols to focus and deepen data conversations, this indispensable guide delineates exactly what should be accomplished in each team meeting to translate data into practice.