Al Cabo Del Tiempo
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A lot of the data on Yr is free to use in applications and services. A formal leader is directly assigned to be a leader e. These classifications permit four sources of leadership, with vertical leadership being classified as external-formal and shared leadership falling under the internal-informal source.
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Given the different sources of leadership, it is impossible for any individual to hold the requisite knowledge and skill to provide leadership from all of these sources simultaneously. Therefore, the study of all of these sources, not just external-formal, is integral to the success of the organization.
Additionally, the sharing of leadership has emerged as a critical component in the modern organizational world. Moreover,those who are doing the job best understand the complexity of the modern organizational setting and, consequently, those individuals are often the best to improve the job Jackson, Ultimately, research has suggested that shared leadership is most effective when tasks are interdependent and complex Pearce, The different conceptualizations of shared leadership differ on what constitutes leadership and the manner in which responsibilities are shared.
This will allow further elaboration on the behaviors said to be the content of shared leadership. When breaking down and examining the nomological net surrounding shared leadership, researchers have put forth several theoretical models and frameworks in hopes to best explain the shared leadership phenomenon. Pearce and colleagues have put forth a stream of research investigating shared leadership. Perry, Pearce, and Sims developed a model of shared leadership within the context of empowered selling teams. They identified transactional, transformational, directive, empowering, and supportive behaviors as being tied to shared leadership.
Further, this model proposed that when teams engage in these behaviors, critical affective e. These outcomes result in qualitative and quantitative markers for team effectiveness. Additionally, Ensley, Pearson, and Pearce examined top management teams when developing a model that examined the influence of shared leadership on promoting key affective and behavioral components related to team effectiveness, as well as identifying moderating variables of this relationship.
Specifically, this model postulates that shared leadership is related to the development of cohesion and shared vision, which, in turn, is related to team effectiveness. They identified possible contextual moderating variables e.
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Other research has put forth several competencies that are said to foster shared leadership. For example, Lambert suggests the ability to: negotiate winwin solutions through team learning, influence follower behavior, problem solve within a systems framework, and use shared visioning to empower members. Additionally, an examination of the role theory literature by Carson and Tesluk produced four roles e. When these roles manifest within a team there appears to be a clear team direction and purpose navigator , structuring of team roles, functions, and responsibilities engineer , development and maintenance of team coherence social integrator , and development of relationships with key external stakeholders liaison.
In an examination of these roles within 42 MBA consulting teams, Carson and Tesluk found that shared leadership conceptualized as the above behaviors was positively related to performance. However, contrary to expectations, the role differentiation, with respect to these behaviors, was negatively related to shared leadership. One explanation of this result suggested by the researchers is that shared leadership is not a concrete pattern of highly differentiated roles, but that team members adapt and exercise more than one of these roles within a given performance episode, based on dynamic situational demands.
Besides work on the models and frameworks of shared leadership, research has delineated some conditions which may impact the emergence of shared leadership. For example, Pearce, Perry, and Sims identify five conditions: geographic dispersion, demographic heterogeneity, team size, skill heterogeneity, and maturity. Geographic dispersion, large team size, and demographic heterogeneity are expected to negatively impact the likelihood of shared leadership emerging as coordination and communication.
Teams with breadth in their abilities are more likely to be positioned to effectively engage in shared leadership, given the right climate and that members are comfortable with and cognizant of the possession of different skills. As stated in the beginning of this section, the emergence of shared leadership does not negate the possibility of vertical leadership. Vertical leadership has been hypothesized to play a key role in creating the conditions necessary for the emergence of shared leadership. For example, Perry et al. They suggest that the vertical leader is responsible for the generation of a team design that fosters the emergence of shared leadership, places and manages appropriate boundary conditions, and enacts facilitative and contingent leadership behaviors.
Pearce extends the research on conditions that facilitate shared leadership by suggesting that, in addition to vertical leadership, the organizational context can facilitate the emergence of shared leadership. Specifically, organizations need to enact training, development, and reward systems that encourage and rewards shared leadership behaviors. Although research has begun to investigate the recent conceptualizations of shared leadership with regards to performance, there is still much to be done.
So far, the majority of the research investigating shared leadership has focused on its underlying components or its relation to performance. These underlying components are typically conceptualized as transactional, transformational, aversive, directive, and empowering behaviors, results from which have indicated that shared leadership not only has a positive relationship with job performance across a number of domains e. Additionally, some studies have also investigated multiple shared leadership roles i. Only a few studies have investigated shared leadership in this capacity.
There has also been some initial undertaking in investigating the relationship between culture and shared leadership. Hiller et al. Virtuality and distribution have become focal issues in a large part of group and teams research. While originally virtuality and distribution were often viewed as dichotomies i.
Virtual teams may range dramatically in terms of the degree to which they utilize virtuality, with some only communicating using highly virtual tools such as instant messaging and teleconferencing, while others are less virtual, making use of videoconferencing and regularly scheduled face to face meetings.
Similarly, teams can range in their degree of distribution, with some teams having all members fully distributed in separate locations or, more commonly, teams with some degree of partial distribution, such as the leader, in the same location as two or three team members and the remaining team members spread out in various locations. In the following we provide further detail regarding how virtuality and distribution are viewed for the purposes of this paper. It is also believed that the complex nature of the tasks completed by virtual teams require advanced tools with rich informational value in order to effectively share ideas.
For example, media richness theory places different forms of communication on a continuum, with face to face interaction being the richest media, providing the most contextual cues and information, and letters or other paper based media as the least rich due to their lack of social cues. Media naturalness builds upon this theory, identifying multiple components of technologies that make them more or less natural. According to media naturalness theory, as technologies become less natural i.
While these theories aid in our understanding as to why media may elicit differential effects, most empirical studies of virtual teams and organizations examine a limited set of virtual tools e. As these tools can potentially differ in their degree of virtuality, such a dichotomous classification system stifles a rich, meaningful understanding of the degree to which these tools vary in their effectiveness and the degree to which they facilitate or hinder the collaborative processes vital to team and organizational performance.
To more precisely address the factors of virtuality that determine the richness and naturalness of a tool, Kirkman and Mathieu delineated three dimensions that comprise virtuality: 1 the extent of reliance on virtual tools, 2 informational value, and 3 synchronicity offered by such tools. The extent of reliance on virtual tools describes the proportion of team interaction that occurs via virtual means. One on end of this continuum, some teams are completely face-to-face in terms of interacting and use no virtual tools whatsoever. Meanwhile, on the other end are teams that interact solely through virtual means.
Teams can fall anywhere along this continuum, for example, having a face-toface kickoff meeting but interacting for a majority of the time using virtual tools such as teleconferencing and email, or vice versa. Informational value is the extent to which virtual tools transmit data that is valuable for team effectiveness. Kirkman and Mathieu argue that, when technologies convey rich, valuable information, exchanges are less virtual than when compared to exchanges via technologies that provide less rich information.
Synchronicity is the extent to which team interactions occur in real time or incur a time lag. For the purposes of this paper, we utilize this perspective of virtuality. Another defining characteristic of teams and organizations is the physical distribution of team members across space Cummings, et al. While it is a common assumption that team members who are distributed must be spread across large distances, full distribution can also occur for teams with members located a very short distance from one another, even within the same city or organization.
Team member distribution is an important component of virtuality as it can determine what types, and how often, virtual tools are utilized, driving the degree of team virtuality. While team member distribution has been commonly studied in virtual teams, much like the degree of virtuality, it is often dichotomized into fully distributed vs. Unfortunately, this dichotomization of distribution has led to little empirical research regarding the impact of partial distribution on virtual teams, specifically in terms of team processes and performance.
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Though it has been shown that full distribution can have constraining effects on collaboration and its relevant affective, behavioral, and cognitive components, such as trust e. Of those that do, most have found that the balance of distribution matters significantly in terms of team outcomes see Bos et al. However, this research has yet to be fully combined with issues of virtuality and shared leadership. Therefore, more clarification is needed regarding when distribution may challenge or benefit team processes and performance, especially in conjunction with differing degrees of virtuality.
Shared Leadership in VTs.
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Certainly, leadership is an important component of VTs, as evidenced by field and laboratory studies Hambley, et al. Much of the literature in this area is purely theoretical e. An extensive review of the literature has revealed a limited set of empirical research that provides a starting point for exploring shared leader functions in VTs. Additionally, Misiolek and Heckman examined the patterns of emergent leadership invirtual teams, finding that distribution of leadership was more effective for these types of teams than traditional vertical leadership.
Finally, in their study of virtual teams conducting social work projects, Pearce, Yoo, and Alavi found that shared leadership was a stronger predictor of team performance than vertical leadership. Therefore, while additional research is certainly needed, these initial findings illustrate the importance of understanding shared leadership in virtual environments. In order to provide a stronger foundation for understanding shared leadership in virtual teams, it is advantageous to draw from the current literature regarding leadership and leader functions.
As mentioned previously, Morgeson et al. Further, Morgeson et al. To build on this, Morgeson and colleagues focus on the temporal cycles phases proposed by Marks, Mathieu, and Zaccaro Morgeson and colleagues break down leadership functions that should occur within each phase and address the effectiveness of each function relative to its originating source. Furthermore, they draw upon the extensive body of leadership literature to conceptualize what leadership sources are best for each type of leader function, based on whether the source is external or internal to the team, as well as informal or formal.
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For example, for training team members, Morgeson and colleagues suggest that if this function originates from an external-informal source, it will be more effective than if it originated from an internal-informal source. Though the notion of shared leadership is encapsulated within the internal-informal source, the implications of how these leadership functions will act under the virtual and distributed circumstances are not addressed.
Subsequently, the remainder of this paper will provide a more detailed exploration of the impact of virtuality and distribution on leadership functions as described by Morgeson et al. To do so, we address and define leader functions occurring in the transition phase e. For each of these leader functions, we will provide propositions regarding how virtuality and distribution may impact the degree to which these leader behaviors may be shared, how varying degrees of both virtuality and distribution may hinder or promote their functionality when such leader behaviors are shared, as well as any potential mechanisms which may reduce any negative impacts that virtuality and distribution may have on these leader functions when they are shared.
This is not meant to be an all encompassing list of propositions that examines every potential interaction of shared leadership, virtuality, and distribution, but instead serves to provide direction regarding the types of issues in need of future exploration.
The idea that teams function in cycles of performance episodes is an integral aspect in the emergence of shared leadership. During the transition phase, teams largely focus on assessing and structuring group composition, defining team goals and objectives, planning how to accomplish these goals, and evaluating and providing feedback from previous performance episodes. This phase allows for leader behaviors related to the structuring, planning, evaluating, and feedback of team processes to occur. As such, we examine several shared leader functions and how levels of virtuality and distribution may impact them.
Define Mission. An integral part of any team process is the presence of a clear, concise, and direct mission. How the mission gets defined is largely the part of the team leader. The outcome of this leader function is to break down the ultimate goal of the team into tangible, achievable, challenging tasks and assure that these tasks are shared among team members. The more ambiguous and monotonous the tasks are, the less motivated team members will be in achieving those tasks and the less likely team members will have a shared understanding of the tasks.
Without a shared understanding of the mission, team members will be less likely to develop the collaborative and cohesive relationships necessary for effective team functioning Barry, as cited in Morgeson et al. These results, however, may not necessarily hold true across different types of virtuality and distribution. Highly virtual may might not necessarily be able clearly define their mission as well as teams with low virtuality because of the lack of audio and visual cues.
This can impact shared leadership, as it takes away from the flow of information needed to ensure a shared understanding of mission, which is critical when multiple leaders are attempting to coordinate in defining the mission. Therefore, we propose:. Proposition 1a. Highly virtual teams who share the function of defining the mission among individuals will have more difficulty defining the mission than teams low in virtuality. However, it is also possible that virtual teams that have a moderate degree of virtuality may be more cognizant of the fact that they are not able to access these social cues and therefore attempt to compensate in other ways, reducing the negative impact of virtuality.
Indeed, Mesmer-Magnus and colleagues found in their meta-analysis of virtual teams and information sharing that virtual teams with a moderate degree of virtuality were more likely to share information and therefore perform better than either high or low virtuality teams. In terms of mission definition, this could mean that team members sharing this function would attempt to maximize their degree of virtuality to ensure clarity of the mission, such as through using multiple virtual tools e.
Therefore we propose:. Proposition 1b. Virtual teams with a moderate degree of virtuality who share the function of defining the mission will have less difficulty defining the mission than high virtuality teams. This may be more pronounced if the leaders sharing the function of mission definition are all collocated, as they may be less likely to perceive differences in shared understanding without the physical presence of members. However, if fully distributed, the shared leaders may make additional efforts to ensure that all team members understand the mission. These different perceptions of the mission could lead to poor execution of behaviors in the action phase and, subsequently, poorer performance.
Therefore, it is proposed:. Proposition 1c. Mission definition will be more challenging in partially distributed teams than in fully distributed teams, particularly when leaders sharing the function of mission definition are collocated. However, there are proposed benefits of virtuality and distribution. This externalization of knowledge allows teams to clearly share information, allowing for a more discernable set of mission tasks Alge, et al.
Therefore, it may be the case that when leaders sharing the mission definition function utilize virtual tools effectively as resources for storing and retrieving information, they will be better able to establish the mission. Thus, we propose:. Proposition 1d. Virtual teams whose leaders maximize the capabilities of virtual tools will be more successful in defining the mission than those who do not. Establish Expectations and Goals. Once a team has a common grasp on the mission, the next leadership function involves establishing performance expectations and goals relative to that mission.
However, no empirical research has investigated the aspects of shared leadership that impact the emergence of such shared expectations in virtual teams. In terms of the impact of virtuality and distribution on sharing the function of setting expectations and goals, it is likely that both the degree of distribution and virtuality may interact to negatively impact expectations and goals. As with defining the mission, distributing team members across time and space, along with reducing the richness of their communication media, can negatively impact how well information is shared Cramton, ; Burke, et al.
This team member diversity can be especially difficult when the establishment of expectations and goals is shared across team members who have differing cultural beliefs as well. Proposition 2a: Expectations and goals will be more challenging to establish in highly virtual and fully distributed teams than teams moderate or low in virtuality and distribution. Potentially playing a key role in the development of common expectations when leadership is shared is the degree to which routines are present in virtual teams.
Establishing habitual routines may be especially beneficial when leadership is shared, as it provides some standards as to which members will be serving particular leader functions, and how these leader functions may be shared amongst multiple or single members at any given time Hambley, et al.
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Structure and Plan. Up to this point, these leader functions have established how team members will work independently from one another. The structuring and planning function addresses the potential interactions between team members during the transition phase. Team members need to develop a shared understanding of how they will coordinate their actions effectively in the accomplishment of team goals. Moregson et al. Method describes how work will be accomplished, role clarification depicts who will do the work, and timing taps when work will get done.
In shared leadership, members of the team are involved in the day-to-day functions. Intuitively, by sharing this responsibility, members should be more effective in understanding what it the best way to the work, the temporal demands of the task, team member expertise, and how to utilize team member availability and expertise to meet temporally driven task demands. While structuring and planning may be vulnerable to similar issues as mentioned for defining the mission and setting goals and expectations, it is also possible that there can be some ways in which virtuality and distribution can be advantageous for this leader function.
Specifically, low virtuality has the potential to hinder the effectiveness of this leadership function by providing fewer opportunities to clarify the structure and plans in dynamic contexts. For example, it may take more effort for low virtuality, face to face teams to initiate planning and structuring, as they require face to face meetings to do so.
When considering partially distributed teams, if the interactions between team cells occur in a more formal matter, both teleconferences and videoconferences must be planned in advance, which can be challenging if this involves members in different time zones or countries Solomon, This, however, is not a restriction of high virtuality teams, as regardless of synchronicity information can be passed back and forth through more informal channels such as instant messaging or email as needed to supplement face to face meetings.
Provide Feedback. An important step in adapting planning and performance in subsequent performance cycles is the distribution of effective feedback. Within the context of shared leadership, Morgeson et al. However, there has been some empirical research suggesting that when virtual team leaders provide evaluative and systematic feedback, there is a greater degree of team identification and commitment Sivunen, The effectiveness of this leadership function, however, is highly dependent of the ease and type of information conveyed between team members.
For example, teams with low virtuality are able to communicate different types of information with greater ease than medium virtuality teams e. Highly virtual teams could potentially share complex feedback e. This is one area in which shared leadership may have a distinct advantage for virtual and distribute teams, if the leaders providing feedback are distributed across locations. For example, teams with multiple members will have an easier time providing feedback within collocated subsets of the team because they are communicating face to face.
However, the ease of providing feedback decreases when this leadership function travels across locations. Proposition 4: Distribution of leaders sharing the function of providing feedback impacts the success of this feedback, such that feedback will be more successful when members sharing this function are spread across locations than when all members sharing the function are collocated.