Faces of life

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Critical species outcomes often have developmental pathways that are strongly buffered by multiple and redundant constraints so as to not be easily derailed see [ 18 , 53 ]. The present results are consistent with a role for constrained early visual environments among other potential constraints [ 53 ]. Because human infants are altricial, care by a few invested adults that brings their faces frequently close to the infant may be an evolutionarily-expected property of experience and one which is central to early developments in the visual system.

Although the present sample included children from just one cultural context, and although parenting practices can vary widely, the needed care for very young infants may nearly universally constrain the range and character of expected face experiences [ 54 , 55 ] making faces the predominant single class of objects for the first few months of life. However, this conclusion does not rule out the possibility of other constraints [ 52 ], including genetically determined neural processes.

Up close frontal views may thereby provide an optimal start for developing specialized face processing, engaging subcortical processes and tuning cortical processes [ 9 , 57 ].

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The environmental constraint suggested by the present results and an innate face template fit together like a glove on a hand. In this way, a detailed study of early visual environments complements research on early intrinsic biases. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.

Abstract Mature face perception has its origins in the face experiences of infants. Introduction Human face perception is remarkable for its precision and for its relevance to species-important tasks [ 1 ]. Method Ethics statement All experimental protocols and consent materials were approved by the Indiana University Institutional Review Board.

Participants The participants were 22 infants 11 female, 11 male aged 1 to 11 months from middle class families in Monroe County, Indiana who were recruited through county birth records and community events. Download: PPT. Procedure In a pre-visit, parents were informed about the goal of the study, consent was obtained, and they were instructed on how to use the camera.

Final corpus and coding The family of the youngest infant was only able to contribute 15 minutes of video. Results Fig 2a shows the proportion of faces in the sampled frames for each infant as a function of their age. Fig 2. Frequencies and identities of faces in the environment. Discussion The theoretical significance of the present findings is clarified by considering how the cumulative hours of face availability relate to the cumulative waking hours of infants over the first year. References 1. The distributed human neural system for face perception.

Trends Cogn Sci, Do 7—month—old infants process independent features or facial configurations? Infant and child development, View Article Google Scholar 3. Understanding the recognition of facial identity and facial expression. Nat Rev Neurosci, Kanwisher N, Yovel G. The fusiform face area: a cortical region specialized for the perception of faces. Zhao L, Bentin S. Own- and other-race categorization of faces by race, gender, and age. Psychon Bull Rev, Can generic expertise explain special processing for faces?

Tarr MJ, Gauthier I. FFA: a flexible fusiform area for subordinate-level visual processing automatized by expertise. Nat Neurosci, Visual following and pattern discrimination of face-like stimuli by newborn infants.

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Pediatrics, Newborns' preferential tracking of face-like stimuli and its subsequent decline. Cognition, Pascalis O, Kelly DJ. The origins of face processing in humans: Phylogeny and ontogeny. Perspectives on Psychological Science, View Article Google Scholar Developmental changes in face recognition during childhood: Evidence from upright and inverted faces. Cognitive Development, A critical review of the development of face recognition: Experience is less important than previously believed.

Cognitive Neuropsychology, Developing a cortex specialized for face perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Nelson CA. Can we develop a neurobiological model of human social-emotional development? Integrative thoughts on the effects of separation on parent-child interactions. Ann N Y Acad Sci, Child Dev Perspect, I spy with my little eye: typical, daily exposure to faces documented from a first-person infant perspective. Dev Psychobiol, Sleep patterns of New Zealand infants during the first 12 months of life. J Paediatr Child Health, The development of face recognition reflects an experience-expectant and activity-dependent process.

Specialization of neural mechanisms underlying face recognition in human infants. J Cogn Neurosci, Scott LS, Monesson A. Experience-dependent neural specialization during infancy. Neuropsychologia, Perceptual training prevents the emergence of the other race effect during infancy. PLOS One, Tanaka J, Gauthier I. Expertise in object and face recognition.

Faces of LIFE

Psychology of learning and motivation, Balas B, Saville A. N face specificity and face memory depend on hometown size.

Each Knows Who He Is

Visual acuity in human infants assessed with stationary stripes and phase-alternated checkerboards. Vision Res, Critical frequencies in the perception of letters, faces, and novel shapes: evidence for limited scale invariance for faces. J Vis, Maurer D, Lewis TL.

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Visual acuity: the role of visual input in inducing postnatal change. Clinical Neuroscience Research, Visual acuity and spatial contrast sensitivity: Normal development and underlying mechanisms. Handbook of developmental cognitive neuroscience, p. Journal of Cognition and Development, just-accepted.

The Things That Sort of Happen in the Life of Kylie:

Hofferth SL. Child care in the United States today. The Future of Children, p. Morrissey TW, Banghart P. Family child care in the United States. They were able to share this experience together. Forty days later, after leaving the hospital, he took part in the D-Day invasion, one of the first to land at Utah beach in Normandy. At Age 90, while in the hospital with a grave illness, Steve made it known he wanted to be able to spend his final days with family in the home he had built with his own hands.

The People in the Life of Kylie:

Hospice provided the care and support needed to make this possible. Together, we believe Hospice volunteering provides a great opportunity for us to share an important role of service within our community. By traveling this intimate journey volunteering, we have gained and shared a deeper life experience within our relationships. Our focus is comfort, physical, spiritual and emotional support.

This is training I live by with every patient and their loved ones I work with. They will always be part of my life. References 1. Comment Post Comment Your name.

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