Rinconete y Cortadillo (Spanish Edition)
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He participated in the battle of Lepanto, where he hurt his left hand. And finally he died in Madrid, the 22nd of April, These two boys of 15 and 17 years old, had to run away from home because their families mistreated them, and they had to rob and cheat while playing cards for being able to survive. These two boys began to speak to each other, as they were young aristocrats, very politely, as they were from the noble class. They begin to realize that they are from the same background but they never tell each other who they are, or even which are their real names, we never know who they are.
These boys, in their trip to Sevilla, stole a carrier all his money playing cards cheating, of course. After that they arrive to Sevilla where they began to work as merchandise carriers, then they steal a sacristan his money's bag, but in that moment a young boy called Ganchuelo told them that if they wanted to go on robbing they had to go to the brotherhood of Monipodio and take part of it. This brotherhood was full of young robbers obeying Monipodio, who was the boss.
This brotherhood is presented in the novel as a school of organized crime, where there are rules that must be obeyed. Monipodio leads a sort of organization full of young robbers and prostitutes, and he gives them the stuff they need to make their functions, while he protects the members of his organization. This brotherhood in perfectly hierarchized and it's the ironical representation of a society; all the robbers have to be registered, you have to pass a previous exam, and it has their own codes and security.
Monipodio is the one who changed the names to the two young boys: Rinconete and Cortadillo. With a big part of the money Monipodio gets thanks to robbing, he made them pay candles for the virgin and saints. He thought that by doing this he was a good believer and he fulfilled his obligations as a good Christian actually, a prostitute said in the book that with her impure work she was gaining her place in the heaven.
It's specified everything on it, both the crime and the payment, and also how must it be done and who would do it. Also the people of the town contract the services of the brotherhood to take revenge of another person. In this novel Cervantes is only describing a reality, he is not evaluating what he is writing. The general structure of the book is lineal because it narrates the events as they are happening. Nevertheless, the structure turns a bit rhetorical because the protagonists tell us events of the past that could be considered as flashbacks.
However, along the novel, we can see that it's organized in three parts that correspond to the three stages in the life of Rinconete and Cortadillo. The first part begin with the meeting of the two boys and finishes with their first job as merchandise carriers; the second part it's from the meeting of Ganchuelo to nearly the end of the novel; and finally the third part is very short and introduces only the thoughts and reflections of Rinconete.
The story of Rinconete and Cortadillo has a moral representation of the life more that a moral teaching. Thus would have been satisfied my own ambition and the desire of some who would like to know the looks and figure of him who dares to come out in the world's mart, placing so many inventions before the eyes of the public.
He lost his left hand, from the shot of an arquebuse, at the naval battle of Lepanto and his wound, though it seems ugly, he holds to be handsome, for he received it in the highest and most memorable occasion which past ages have seen, or future ages hope to see, fighting under the victorious standards of the son of the thunderbolt of war, Charles v.
Rinconete and Cortadillo 55 as neither praises nor vituperations have any real or exact foundation. In short, seeing that the opportunity has been wasted, and that I am left in the lurch, and without a portrait, I must of necessity make use of my own tongue, which, although it usually stammers, will not do so when it comes to speaking truths, for as a rule these are under- stood even by signs. And so I tell you, again, beloved reader, that with these novels I oifer you, you will in no way be jible to make a spicy dis h; for they have neither head, nor tail nor anything resembling them.
If I did not fear to lengthen the subject too much, I would perhaps show you the tasty and honest fruit you might pluck from each and all of them. My intention has been to bring into the mart of our republic a sort of billiard table, where each one may find amusement without the slightest danger; that is to say, without danger to soul or body ; for honest and pleasant exer- cise is rather beneficial than harmful.
For I know one 56 Rinconete and Cortadillo is not always in the churches, nor is one alwa3rs oc- cupied with business, however important it might be; there are hours of recreation in which the afflicted spirit rests.
It is for this purpose that promenades are shaded with poplars, springs are much sought after, hills are levelled and gardens cultivated with great care. One thing I shall dare to say : that if the reading of these novels could possibly engender In lEe reader one single bad wish or thought, I would rather cut oflf the hand with which I wrote them than give, them to the public. At my age, one does not care to make fun of the next life ; for I am more than nine years, beyond five-and-fifty.
My genius begat them, my pen brought them forth and they are thriving in the arms of the press. After them, if life does not forsake me, I shall ofifer you the Trabajos de PersUes y Sigismunda, a book which will dare to compete with Heliodorus, if its Rinconete and Cortadillo 57 daring does not earn for it a broken head.
I only wish you to consider one thing: that if I have the audacity to dedicate these novels to the great Count of Lemos, it is because therein lies hidden some mystery which gives them merit. No more, except God keep you, and may He give me patience to bear the evil which more than four sly and stiflF starched fellows are bound to speak of me.
One of them was from fourteen to fifteen years of age while the other was not over seventeen. Both were of pleasant countenance, but very ragged and dilapidated. They had no cloak, their breeches were of linen, and their stockings their very flesh. It is true that their shoes remedied these defects, for those of one were alpargates worn and torn, and those of the other fancy and without soles ; so that they served him more as fetters than as shoes.
One wore a green hunter's cap; the other a hat without band, low of crown, and broad of brim. On his back, and fastened round his breast, one carried a shirt of chamois color rolled and tied in a small bag. In it were wrapped and preserved some playing-cards of an 59 6o Rinconete and Cortadillo oval shape : for with constant use the comers had been worn out, and, in order to make them last longer, they had been trimmed, and the cards remained of that shape. Both lads were sunburnt, their nails were uncut, and their hands not very clean.
The Exemplary Novels of Cervantes by Miguel de Cervantes: Rinconete and Cortadillo
One had the half of a sword and the other a knife with a yellow handle, usu- ally called a vaquero. The two came out to spend the siesta in a porch or shed in front of the tavern and, sitting down opposite each other, he who seemed to be the elder said to the younger : "To what part of the country does your worship, sir Knight, belong, and whither is he journeying? My journey is haphazard, and I would put an end to it wherever I could find Rinconete and Cortadillo 6i someone to give me enough to support this miserable life.
And I cut them so well that, truly, I could pass an examination for a master's cer- tificate, only, an unkind fate keeps me in a comer. Yet, if I make no mistake and my eye tells me no lies, your grace has other secret gifts and does not wish to mention them. For some days, I accompanied him in his trade, and I learned it so well that in the matter of selling bulls I could give odds to the greatest expert. But having one day interested myself, more in the money derived from the bulls than in the bulls themselves, I clasped my arms round one of the money bags and landed with it in Madrid, where, with the facilities which ordinarily present themselves there, in a few days I disemboweled the bag and left it with MY BACK LEATHERED.
Rinconete and Cortadillo 63 more creases than a bride's handkerchief. The man responsible for the money followed me ; I was ar- rested and met with little favor, although the magis- trates, considering my youthful age, contented them- selves with having me tied to an iron ring, and having my back leathered for a time, and sent me away, ban- ished from the capital, for four years. I was patient, shrugged my shoulders, stood the leathering and thrashing, and left to do the term of banishment in such a hurry that I had no time to look for a motmt.
And, if your worship be versed in the game, he will see what an advantage one has who knows for a certainty that the first card is an ace, which may serve him for one point or for eleven; and with this advantage, the veintiuna having been challenged, the money remains at home. With these accomplishments, I am safe from dying of hung er, for, on arriving even at a farm house, there is alwavs someone willing to kill time playing a little, and of this both of us shall have the experience later on.
Let us spread our net and we will see if we can trap some bird of these muleteers who are hereabouts. I mean to say that we two shall play at veintiuna, as if we had stakes, and, if someone wishes to take a third hand, he will be the first to leave his pelf. My father is a tailor and taught me his trade. All the same, it is true that about eight days ago a double spy brought my abilities to the notice of the magistrate, and he, be- coming interested in my bright talents, wished to see me.
But as I am of a humble disposition and dislike having intercourse with people of such a high, station, I endeavored to avoid seeing him, and so I abandoned the city in such a hurry that I had no opportunity for finding a mount, or brass, or a chaise, or even a cart. Let us plainly confess that we don't possess a copper, nor even shoes. As they were playing, a muleteer came out to the porch for a breath of fresh air, and asked them to be allowed to take a third hand.
The muleteer , thinking that, being boys, they could not prevent it, attempted to tak e the money from them, but they, drawing the one his half sword and the other his yellow-handled knife, gave him so much to do that, had not his com- panions sallied forth, he would undoubtedly have had a bad time of it. She had been listening to their chatter without their notic- ing it, and when she told the muleteer that she had heard them say that the cards were marked, he plucked his beard and wanted to go to the tavern after them to recover his money. For, he said, it was a great affront and a mean trick that two boys should have cheated such a big man as he was.
In fine, such were the arguments they brought forth that, although they did not console him, they ind uced him to remain where he was. Meanwhile Cortado and Rincon were so adroit in serving the travellers, that for most of the road they carried them on the cruppers of their mules; and, although many opportunities presented themselves for picking the bags of their temporary masters, they did not avail themselves of them, so as not to lose such 68 Rinconete and Cortadillo a good chance of travelling to Seville where they were very anxious to be.
And so, with his yellow-handled knife, he inflicted upon it such a wide and deep wound that its bowels could clearly be seen, and skilfully extracted therefrom two good shirts, a sundial, and a book of memoranda. They had taken leave — previous to committing the theft — of their employers, and next day they sold the f shirts in the malbaratillo which is held outside the gate of the Arenal, and made twenty reals out of them.
This business transacted, they went to see the city, and were astonished by the grandeur and sumptuous- Rinconete and Cortadillo 69 ncss of its cathedral, and by the great throng at the river side. For it was the time for loading the fleet, and there were six galleys in the river, whose sight made them sigh and even fear the day when their ill- doings would bring them to dwell aboard for life. An Asturian boy, to whom they had addressed their questions, replied that the work was light, free from taxes, and that some days he earned - from five to six reals with which he ate and drank.
The account of the little Asturian did not seem bad at all to the two friends, nor did the occupation dis- please them. For it appeared to them that it was ad- mirably suited to the pursuit of their own calling under cover and with safety, as it offered them an opportunity for entering all houses, and they inmie- diately decided to buy the necessary implements to 70 Rinconete and Cortadillo carry on the business, since they could take it up with- out passing any examinations. Their guide counselled them as to the places they would have to attend : in the mornings, at the meat market and at the square of San Salvador; on fast days, at the fish market and at the Costanilla; every afternoon, at the river side ; and, on Thursdays, at the fair.
They learned this lesson well by heart, and the next day, early in the morning, took up their stations in the square of San Salvador. They had hardly ar- rived when they were surrounded by other lads of the same trade; for, from the splendid condition of their bags and baskets, it could be seen that they were new- comers in the square. They were asked a thousand questions and to all of them they replied with discretion and reserve.
For the Asturian had also ad- vised them to be smart. Cortado accosted Rincon and asked him how he had fared. Rincon opened his hand and showed him the three cuartos. It was somewhat swollen, and Cortado said: "With this and with two cuartos more his rev- f erence, the student, paid me. Take it, Rincon, for goodness only knows what may happen. To which, Cortado answered with great dissimulation and without altering his expression in the least : "All I can tell you about that purse is that it would not have been lost unless your worship had kept it in an unsafe place.
And, truly, I would not care to be the person who carried off your purse, for, if it be that your worship holds some sacred order, it would seem to me that I had committed some great incest or sacrilege. And, what income does it yield each year? Do you think I am going to stand here and tell you what it yields? I shall not err in one atom. The sacristan having departed, Cortado followed him, overtook him on the steps, called him and led him aside. There he began to tell him so much nonsense, of the kind called bernardinas, about the theft and the finding of his purse, giving him good hopes, but with- out ever finishing a sentence, that the poor sacristan stood dumbfounded listening to Cortado.
And as he did not manage to understand what the lad was saying, he made him repeat his sentences two or three times. Cortado kept staring fixedly at his face and did not take his eyes off those of the sacristan, who was look- ing at him in the same way and was, as it were, hanging on his words. With this the sacristan consoled himself a little and took leave of Cortado, who went to rejoin Rincon.
The latter, standing a little aside, had witnessed everything. Lower down stood another lad with the baskets who had seen all that had taken place and how Cortado was giving the handkerchief to Rincon; and coming up to them he said: "Tell me, young fops, are your honors of bad or good entry? But I wonder why I am asking you this question, for I know already that you are. So, your worship may guide us to where that gentleman you speak of resides.
Already I suspect that he is well qualified and very generous, and, besides, quite clever at his profession. Just the other day, they gave three ansias to a cuatrero who had murciado two roznos and, although he was thin and suffering from a quartan fever, he bore them without singing and as if they had been nothing at all, and this, we of the profession, attribute to his great devotion, for his own strength was not enough to endure the first desconcierto of the executioner.
And as I know you will question me about some of the words I have used, I shall apply the remedy before the malady and explain before you ask me.
Novelas ejemplares, Rinconete y Cortadillo, La ilustre fregona - Miguel de Cervantes
What is there of evil in it? Let your worships remain at the door and I will go in and see if he is disengaged, as this is the time when he usually grants audience. The two lads remained waiting at the door. Presently, the youth came out and called them. On one side there was a three-legged stool, and on the other a large pitcher with a broken mouth, and on top of it a little jug no less defective than the pitcher. Elsewhere there was a mat of rushes, and in the middle of the court a large flower-pot, called in Seville a "sweet basil pot.
From all these, Rincon inferred that the basket served the purpose of an alms-box, and that the basin was used to hold holy water, which was really the case. While the boy was inspecting the room, two young men — each of about twenty years of age and dressed like students — entered the house, followed in a little while by two basket ca rrier s and a bli nd ma n; and without any of them uttering a word, they began to walk up and down the court. After them came an old woman in flowing robes and, without saying a word, went into the room, and, dipping her fingers in holy wate r with great reverence, knelt down before the image.
After a rather long interval she kissed the floor three times, raised her eyes and arms to heaven as many times, and rose up. She dropped an alms in the basket, left the chamber and joined the company in the court. Rinconete and Cortadillo 83 Before long there gathered in the court as many as fourteen people of diflferent occupations and garbs.
As soon as they entered the court they looked askance at Rincon and Cortado, showing that they did not know them, and thought they were strangers. Walking up to the boys, the two gallants asked them if they be- longed to the brotherhood, and Rincon replied : "Yes, and we are your worship's most humble ser- vants. He seemed to be forty- five or forty-six years old, and was tall of stature and dark of complexion. His eyebrows met, his beard was bushy and black, and his eyes sunken. Hanging from his shoulders he wore a baize cloak reaching almost down to his feet, which were shod with shoes worn in slipper-like fashion.
His hat was a gypsy one, with a bell-shaped top and a straight brim. Across his breast and back he wore a shoulder-belt from which hung a short broadsword, like those mark- ed with a little dog. His hands were short and hairy, his fingers fat, and his nails broad and imcut. In fact, he was the picture of the most rustic and ill-shapen ba rbarian in t he world. With him came the guide of the boys who, taking them by the hand, introduced them to Monipodio, saying : "These are the two good lads of whom I have spoken to your worship, my lord Monipodio. Pray, let your worship examine them, and he will see that they fully merit being admitted into our brotherhood.
I was forgetting to mention that, as soon as Moni- podio descended the stairs, all those who were waiting f r him made a profound and prolonged reverence, except the two gallants who, d medio mo gate care- lessly , as they say among themselves, took off their hats and continued their walk on one side of the court, while Monipodio began to walk on the opposite.
He questioned the novices as to their profession, country, and parentage, and Rincon replied : Rinconete and Cortadillo 85 "Our profession is evident, since we have come before your worship. Our country does not seem to me to be important enough to mention, it, nor our parents either, since there will never be any inquiries made in order to confer upon us some honorable order. It is a very judicious policy to conceal the things you have mentioned ; for, should your luck not fun as it ought to, it would be a pity that it should be recorded over a lawyer's signature or in the registrar's book that: 'So and so, son of so and so, and native of such and such a place, was hanged or flogged on such and such a date,' or a similar statement which, at least, jars honest ears, and so I tell you again that it is a judicious policy to make no mention of one's country, to conceal one's parents, and to change one's own name.
Yet, among us, nothing must be concealed and now, all I wish to know is the names of you two. Stop him! Leave him alone with his own conscience, and his sin shall be his punish- ment!
ISBN 13: 9788420726328
And, in regard to courage, how do you feel, my son? Courage we have to attempt any enterprise dealing with our art and profession. We have courage for everything and we are not so ignorant as not to know that what the tongue speaks the neck has to pay for. There is no need to say any more! They would be enti- tled to drink wine neat and to hold a banquet when, how, and where they pleased, without asking leave of their squad chief.
They could share in whatever their - elder brothers should steal, as if they were also elders, and several other things which they held as great gifts and for which they thanked those present with very courteous words. When they were thus busy, a lad came in running and out of breath, and he said : "The constable of the vagabonds is walking towards this house, but he brings no policemen with him. Be quiet and I shall go out to speak to him.
At this, Monipodio began to get into such a passion that his eyes were flashing forth living fire, and he said : "Let no one make jest by breaking the least regula- tion of our order, for it will cost him his life. Let the purse be produced and, if it was hidden in order to avpid the duties, I shall give to the one who committed f 92 Rinconete and Cortadillo it every bit of his lawful share, and I shall pay it out of my own pocket for, by all means, the Constable must go away satisfied.
All this was like adding fuel to Monipodio's wratk and gave occasion for the whole company to get ex- cited, seeing that their statutes and good regulations Jwere being broken. Rinconete, considering the great disturbance and uproar, thought it would be well to put a stop to it and, at the same time, give pleasure to his chief who was bursting with rage, and, having consulted his friend Cortadillo, with common consent produced the sac- ristan's purse and said : "Let all argument cease, gentlemen!
This is the purse, without wanting in one single item of those mentioned by the Constable; for to-day my comrade Cortadillo stole it along with a handkerchief which he took into the bargain from vhe same owner. On seeing this, Monipodio said : "Let Cortadillo the Good— for with this title and 1 surname he shall be known henceforth — keep the Rinconete and Cortadillo 93 handkerchief.
I undertake to reward this service fit- tingly, and let the purse be taken to the Constable, for it belongs to a sacristan who is some relative of his. Maniferro's name was derived from the fact that he had an iron hand instead of his own, which he had had cut off by the executioner.
The gallants embraced the women with great joy and asked them if they had brought anything with which to wet their throats. He also told them to sit around, in order that having appeased their appetites, they should next deal with some important things. At this, the old woman who had been praying to the image in the chamber, said: "Monipodio, my son, i am not for any banquetings, as in the last few days I have had such a fearful headache that it almost drives me mad.
August- ine. What I came here for, was to say that last night Renegado and Centopies brought into my house a wash basket larger than the present one, full of white linen and, may God bless my soul! They arrived dripping with sweat. It was pitiful to see them coming in panting and with the perspiration pouring from their faces. In fact, they looked like two little angels. They told me they were after a drover who had been weighing some rams at the slaughter house, to see if they could steal a very big purse of reals which he carried with him.
TTiey did not unpack the linen nor count it, trusting to the integrity of my conscience, and — may God grant me all my good wishes and deliver us all f rom the h ang- man — I have not touched the basket and it is now"'as whole as on the day it was bom. I shall go to your house towards evening, examine and inspect its contents, and give every one his dues, equitably and faithfully, as is my custom. May God comfort you, my daughter, for you have comforted me thus.
Only, I am afraid it will do me harm, for I have not had my breakfast yet. Rinconete and Cortadillo 97 Because with the hurry and anxiety to bring the news about the basket, I forgot my purse at home. Michael, and, if you can buy two, place the other in front of my Lord St. Blaise; for they are my patrons. I would like you to place another before my Lady St. Lucy, for whom I have great devotion as she is the advocate of the eyes, but I have no more change.
I shall have more some other day and then I shall settle with them all. And see and be not stingy, and remember it is of the very greatest importance to take the candles and place them personally before one dies, and not wait for the heirs or trustees to place them. When the old woman had gone away, they all sat round the mat. Gananciosa spread the sheet by way of table cloth, and the first things she took out of the basket were a bundle of radishes and over a dozen oranges and lemons, and then an earthen pan full of slices of fried cod.
She afterwards produced half a Flemish cheese, a pot of superior olives, a plate of shrimps, a great quantity of craw-fish with their savory of large capers covered with chillis, and three big and very white loaves of bread from Gandul. There might have been fourteen people to lunch and none of them failed to bring out a yellow-handled knife, excepting Rinconete who produced his half sword.
To the two old men in baize and to the guide, fell the duty of distributing the wine with the jar. But hardly had they begun to tackle the oranges, when they were all startled by some knocks at the door. Moni- podio ordered them to be calm, and going into the low chamber, took down a shield, grasped his sword, and, walking to the door, asked in a hollow fearsome voice : "Who knocks? The lad answered that he would do so. Cariharta, who was a young woman of similar appearance and the same occupation as the others, came in.
Her hair was torn and her face disfigured by blows, and as soon as she entered the court, she fell to the ground in a faint. Gananciosa and Escalanta ran to her assistance and, opening her bosom, they found her all black and blue, as if she were bruised. They sprinkled some water on her face and she came to her- self shouting at the pitch of her voice: "God's and the king's justice strike that thieving cut-throat, that cowardly rascal, that verminous rogue whom I have saved from the gallows more times than there are hairs in his beard.
Woe is me! See for whom I have sacrificed and wasted my youth! For a heartless, treacherous and incorrigible brute! Tell us your grievance, and be sure that you will take longer in relating it than I in avenging you. Tell me if someone has shown lack of respect towards you, for, if that is the case and you desire vengeance, you need only to open your mouth. Eat bread again at the same table or lie in the same bed with him?. And why, do you think, has he done it?
Perhaps I made him jealous and gave him occasion for it? Certainly not! Heaven will be taken into account for the atonement i of my sins. Ganandosa took her hand and tried to console her, telling her that she would have willingly given up one of her best jewels in order that the same thing might have happened to her with her lover: "For I wish you to know," she said, "sister Cariharta, in case you do not know it, that he who loves well chastises well, and when these brutes strike us, leather us and kick us, it is then that they adore us.
If not, on your life, confess one truth to me : after Repolido had punished and bruised you, did he not bestow one caress on you? How dare he put his hands on Cariharta's face, or on her flesh, being, as she is, a person who can compete in clean- liness and earnings with Gananciosa herself, who is here present, and I could not give her any higher praise? Calm yourself sister; for, be- fore long, you shall see him come as repentant as I have already told you.
And if he does not come, we will write him a letter in couplets to exasperate him. The old men drank sine fine, the lads freely, and the ladies a good deal. The old men asked leave to depart, and Monipodio granted it immediately, recommending to them great punctuality in bringing intelligence of anything they might see likely to be useful or profitable to the brother- Rinconete and Cortadillo hood. They answered that they would take good care of that, and they went away. To which Monipodio replied that in their slang and manner of speaking, they were called dispones a nd they were use- ful going about town through the day avispando in which houses an attempt could be made at night, and in following those who took money out of the Contrata- cion or mint, to see where they carried it to and even to ascertain where they placed it and, on becoming acquainted with the facts, they felt the thickness of the walls of the house and sketched out the most convenient place for boring the guzpataros meaning holes in order to facilitate an entrance.
In short, he said they were the most, or at least some of the most, useful per- sons in the brotherhood, and that, from everything which through their ingenuity was stolen, they received a fifth part — which is exactly the same amount received by His Majesty from the national coffers — and that, r with all this, t hey were very truthful and honest m en. And there are some of them so discreet, Rinconete and Cortadillo especially the two who have just left, that they content themselves with far less than what, according to our regulations, is their due, "There are two others who are porters," continued Monipodio, "and, as they are al- ways engaged in removals, they know the ins and outs of every house in the city, and which should prove profitable to us, and which not.
Monipodio went out to see who it was and, having inquired, the answer came : "Let your worship open, senor Monipodio ; for I am Repolido. Do not open the door to that Tarpeian sailor, that tiger of Ocana! But Cariharta, seeing that he was opening the door, got up in a hurry, fled into the chamber where the shields hung, shut the door behind her, and from inside began to say in a loud voice : "Take away from io6 Rinconete and Cortadillo my sight that living grimace, that slaughterer of inno- cents, that scare-crow which frightens tame doves!
By your life, calm yourseli and perhaps you shall see yourself married! You would be delighted if I were married to you, but I would rather be married to a skeleton! And mind, do not grow conceited at seeing me so submissive and talking quietly, or, by God! Humble your- self and let us all humble ourselves, and do not let us feed the devil. I begin to see, Mistress Fire-brand, that I shall have to raise the price to twelve, if it is never sold. Cariharta shall come out, not through any threats, but for love of me, and all will end well; for quarrels between those who love each other well, only cause a greater pleasure when peace is made.
Hallo, Juliana! Hallo, Cariharta dear! And so, stepping be- tween them, he said : "Stop, gentlemen! Let big words cease and let them pass no further than the teeth, and, since those already spoken do not come up to the belt, let no one take them to himself. Cariharta was listening to the altercation and, when she heard that Repolido was going away in a temper, she came out shouting : "Stop him! Do not let him go, or he will work some mischief. Can you not see that he is angry, and that in matters of valor he is a real Judas Macarelo?
Come back here, bravo of the world and of mine eyes! Gananciosa seized a new broom of palm leaves, which happened to be there, and scratching it made a sound which, although hoarse and rough, har- monized with that of the slioe. Monipodio broke a plate and placing two of the pieces between his fingers and shaking them with great rapidity, made a counter- point to the shoe and the broom. Maniferro noticed this and said to them : "Are you astonished at the broom? And yet, damn it, they say it was invented by a fop of this city who fancies himself a very Hector in music!
But the first to begin was Escalanta who, in a thin and flexible voice, sang the following : "For a brave Sevillian, like a Goth so fair. My poor heart doth languish and my soul despair. Rinconete and Cortadillo iii Who's the lass warm-hearted that would not go mad? For 't is thine own flesh that thou makest sore! Let the past be past and let us follow another road,. The sentinel told him that the Chief Constable had appeared at the end of the street and that in front of him came Tordillo and Cemicalo, two neutral con- stables. Those in the court heard this and were greatly upset; so much so that Cariharta and Escalanta put on the other one's shoes, Gananciosa dropped the broom and Monipodio the sherds, and to the music succeeded an ominous silence.
Chiquiznaque became Rinconete and Cortadillo dumb, Repolido was astonished, and Monipodio para- lysed. Then, one this way, another that way, they all disappeared, climbing to the azoteas and roofs of the houses in order to escape by them into another street. Never did an arquebuse untimely fired, or a sudden peal of thunder so scare a flock of unsuspecting doves, as the news of the arrival of the Chief Constable threw into panijc and disorder all that company of honest people.
The two novices, Rinconete and Cortadillo, did not know what to do with themselves and they remained quiet, waiting to see how that sudden storm would end. But it ended only by the return of the sentinel who said that the Chief Constable had passed along without giving sign or indication that he had any evil suspicions. As he was saying this to Monipodio, there came to the door a young gentleman dressed — as the expression commonly has it — de barrio.
Monipodio showed him in and ordered Chiquiznaque, Maniferro, and Repolido to be called, but that none of the others should come down. Moni- podio answered that he was not aware, as yet, of what kad been done, but that the officer under whose charge his business had been placed was there, and that he would give a good accotmt of himself. At this moment Chiquiznaque came down and Moni- podio asked him if he had carried out the commission whidi was entrusted to him — the gas h of fourteen stitches.
Then, what happened is this," said Chiquiznaque. I waited for him last night at the door of his house and he came before dusk. God be with you. It is worth, by weight, one ii6 Rinconete and Cortadillo thousand reals and it might happen that I may not redeem it ; for I have in view another fourteen stitches which shall be needed before long. Monipodio received it with much pleasure and court- esy ; for he was extremely well bred.
The execution of the business was again entrusted to Chiquiznaque who only asked for that very night as the term for carrying it out. The gentleman went away very pleased and then Monipodio called back all those who were absent and frightened. They all came back and Monipodio, standing in their midst, took out a book of memoranda which he carried in the hood of his cloak, and gave it to Rinconete to read; for he could not read himself. Xecutant, Q iguiznaque.
Ter m: s ix days. Xecutant: Maniferro. Without a doubt Desmochado must be indisposed; for two days have passed beyond the term and he has not moved one finger in this business. Is there any- thing else, lad? Then, pass on," said Monipodio, "and look where it says : 'Memorandum of petty offences. Four escudos have been given towards payment and the price is eight. At least, I would rather nail one hundred horns and as many Sambenitos, if I were paid for my work, than mention it one single time, even if it were only to the very mother who bore me.
The half of it has already been paid, the executants are the whole brotherhood and the term the whole of this month, and it shall be carried out to the letter, without missing one dot, and it will be one of the best things which have happened in this city for a long time. Give me the book, lad; for I know there is nothing else, and I also know that trade is very slack. But one time will follow another and we shall have more to do than we would wish for. For even a leaf does not stir without the will of God, and we cannot very well force people to revenge themselves, all the more as each one is brave in his own case and does not care to pay other people to do the work he can do with his own hands.
To Rinconete and O rtadillo, the Good, we give until Sunday the district from the Torre del Oro, outside the city, to the gate of the Alcizar where, with their accomplishments, one could work sitting down; for I have seen others of less cunning than they finish up each day with more than twenty reals in coppers, not to mention the silver, with only one pack of cards, and even that four cards short. Ganchoso will show you the district, and even if you go as far as San Sebastian and Santelmo it matters little, although it is mere justice that no one should intrude upon the domain of others.
He does not come at once to report himself and pay his obeisance because he has arrived some- what injured, but he will be here on Sunday without fail. For, to be a master in one'b profession, there is as much need of good tools to work. He has gone to lodge there because he had news that two Peruleros live in the same house and he wanted to find out if he could induce them to play Rinconete and Cortadillo cards with him, even if it were for a small sum, as from that they might risk a larger one.
He also says that he will not fail to be at the meeting on Sunday and give an account of his person. I have not seen him for some days, and that is not good enough. And, in faith, if he does not mend his ways, I shall spoil his tonsure for him ; for the thief has taken no more orders than a Turk, nor does he know any more Latin than my own mother. Is there any more news?
He embraced Rinconete and Cortadillo and I Rinconete and Cortadillo giving them his blessing, dismissed them charging them never to have fixed or permanent lodgings; for that was essential to the welfare of all. Ganchoso accompanied them till he had shown them their posts and reminded them not to be absent on Sun- day ; for as he thought and firmly believed, Monipodio was going to give them a lesson concerning things pertaining to their profession.
With this he went away, leaving the two chums astonished at what they had seen. He thought of what he had read in the book of memoranda and of the exercises in which they were all engaged. That Cervantes "did not fare so well" with his pro- logue to the first part of Don Quixote is not surprising, for in it he criticized with great wit and biting sarcasm the custom prevalent among the authors of those days of printing at the beginning of their books screeds of eulogistic verses from the Toms, Dicks, and Harrys of their acquaintance, and of stuffing their books with more or less — or, perhaps, less than more — apposite quotations from the classics.
The prologue to the Exemplary Novels is, to a certain extent, an echo of the one to the first part of Don Quixote, for Cervantes again scoffs at the futility of such testimonials. Although Jauregui is one of the outstanding figures in Spanish literature, and a prominent person in many other respects, the date of his birth is unknown. He is supposed to have been bom in Most writers insist that Jaiiregui was a native of Seville, but of Basque parentage. Bouterwek and Ticknor say that he was of Biscayan origin, Clemencin and Mr. Fitzmaurice-Kelly simply state that he was a Rinconete and Cortadillo Sevilian, or Sevillan, but, as Sefior Soraluce has pointed out, Jauregui came from Vergara, a town in Guipuzcoa — one of the Basque provinces — and he cites the testimony of Dr.
Isasti, a contemporary of Jauregui. He lived in Italy for some time and during his residence in that country translated Tasso's Aminta, He also translated Lucan's Pharsalia and published several original works both in prose and poetry. In the latter work he says of the Aminta that it is hard to tell which is the translation and which the original. There may be some exaggeration in this opinion, but there is no question as to the excellence of Jauregui's version which has been highly praised by all critics.
His style has been acclaimed as a model of purity and refinement. Little or nothing is known about Jauregui as an artist. Fitzmaurice-Kelly doubts whether he painted Cervantes at all, and qualifies as "dubious" the passage in the prologue to the Novels to which this note refers. I am not at all surprised that Mr. If the portrait by Jauregui was "in verse," what need was there to write anything under it? It is rather curious that Don Miguel de Toro Gomez, who in a recent edition of Don Quixote "clemencined" Clemencin by commenting on his commentary, omitted to make any remarks on this important point.
Page 54, Line 4 La Galatea was printed in March, It is a pastoral novel of considerable merit, though it suffers from the defects common to works of that kind. Cervantes only wrote the first part and so the novel has remained incomplete. On several occasions Cer- vantes promised his readers to write a second part but, though he died thirty years after the first part appeared, he never fulfilled his promise.
Page 54, Line 5 The Viaje al Parnaso or Viaje del Parnaso is a poetical composition of more value as an historical document than as a literary production, though some critics have praised it highly. In it Cervantes men- tions nearly all of the contemporary writers and, as was his wont, is rather liberal with his commendations. The Viaje al Parnaso was published in Cesar Caporal or, to give him his Italian name, Cesare Caporali, was a poet who imitated the style of the cinquecentista F.
His Viaggio di Parnaso appeared in During the miserable and wretched years of his captivity, Cervantes showed that as a mere man he was even greater than as the author of Don Quixote. The history of his bondage in Algiers is full of almost incredible incidents in which he exhibited great for- titude and generosity of soul and a reckless disregard of his personal safety when, by exposing himself, he could alleviate the sufferings of his fellow slaves. The latter was utterly routed and the defeat was perhaps the great- est check which the Ottomans ever suffered.
The combined fleets sailed under the command of Don Juan of Austria. Cervantes, who was serving in the company of Diego de Urbina, of the tercio of Miguel de Moncada, shipped aboard the galley "Marquesa. When the battle ended, Rinconete and Cortadillo i33 he had received three wounds; two in the chest and one in the left hand.
As a result of his wounds, Cervantes was i i a hospital at Messina during seven long months. Page 54, Line Page 56, Line 17 The statement that he was the first to write novels in the Castilian tongue is hardly accurate. Cervantes was preceded by others, though none ever attained his degree of excellence. Undoubtedly the best part of this work is the prologue in which Cervantes mentions his meeting with the brown-clad student. The Trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda is a ro- mance teeming with exciting adventures on lands and seas of which some have never been charted.
Page 57, Lines 3 and 4 The second part of Don Quixote appeared in , but of the Semanas del Jar din nothing is known, save the title. He was bom at Madrid in and died in the same town in Through his marriage to his cousin. However great his services to the state may have been, none deserve to be remembered more than the generous protection which he extended to the men of letters of his time, among whom was Cervantes. Besides the Exemplary Novels, Cervantes dedicated to his illustrious patron the second part of Don Qui- xote and the Trdbajos de Persiles y Sigismunda.
Hunt- ington. The inn was situated two leagues from Tar- tanedo and four from Almodovar del Campo, on the road from Toledo to C6rdoba. They are light and durable, and very cheap. The infantry in the Spanish army wear them. Page 59, Line 18 Alforjas, from the Moorish Al Horeh, are saddle bags, although they are also carried by pedestrians. They are generally made of cotton and worsted and are embroidered in gaudy colors and curious patterns.
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When on foot, people carry them over one shoulder. Page 59, Line 21 Walloon collar, a linen collar, narrow at the back of the neck and broad in front. Page 60, Line 8 Vaquero. This knife was so called because it was used for slaughtering cattle. It is, in shape, like a slightly curved penknife of one blade, and it attains sometimes formidable proportions. Page 61, Line id The offering of All Saints, which was rather large, was made for masses to be said for the dead on the day following All Saints. Page 61, Line 12 The monument is a representation of a temple built in the nave of Spanish churches on Maundy Thursday.
It is, as a rule, highly decorated. This place is called Fonfrida by Villuga in his Repertorio. It is now called Fuenfria Cold spring. It is a hamlet in a mountain pass, three leagues from Segovia on the road to Toledo. Before the pass of Navacerrada was made practi- cable, the kings and princes going to the royal do- mains of Valsain and San Ildefonso were forced to cross the mountains through Fuenfrida.
Page 62, Line 15 The names of all the characters in this novel have some reference to their possessors. Thus, Rincon means corner, and alludes to the obscure village whence Peter came. It allowed them to eat meat during Lent and other fasting days. This bull still continues to be issued. Page 63, Line 5 In the royal gaols there used to be an iron ring to which youthful offenders condemned to be flogged were tied, instead of receiving their punishment in public, as did the older culprits.
Page 63, Line 5 Vilhan, or Bilhan, was supposed to have been the inventor of playing cards. The banker deals out one card to each player who then makes his stake. He then deals a second card. If the banker has made twenty-one points, or more points than any of the rest, he wins. If one of the players has made twenty-one points, the player wins, provided that the banker has not made twenty-one points at the same time. An ace coimts as one or as eleven points. Page 64, Line 3 Andaboba.
Literally: Go on, you fool! Page 65, Line 5 The reader may think the name of Argus somewhat out of place on the lips of a Spanish lad brought up in a small country place, but nevertheless, Roman in- fluence was so strong in the Peninsula that mythologi- cal names — often mispronounced — are common prop- erty.
Page 65, Line 9 Espia doble double spy was the name given to a person who played false both to the police and those persecuted by them. Page 65, Line 21 Cortado is the past participle of cortar — to cut — an obvious reference to the art practiced by the young scamp. And so it is said : "So and so has inherited so many dollars limpios de polvo y de paja," meaning that the money is free from any taxes or duties.
Page 66, Line ii The maravedi was worth about one twenty-sixth of an American cent and the rec4 about three Ameri- can cents. For- merly it was called postigo del Carbon Widcet of the Coal. Page 68, Line 23 A malbaratUlo is a place where second hand goods of very inferior quality and stolen goods are sold. Page 68, Line 23 The gate of the Arenal gave access to the Arenal which was an expanse of ground between the river Guadalquivir and the wall surrounding Seville. Page 70, Line 15 The fish market La Pescaderia was established in the arcades of the Atarazanas — a large square where the Custom House was built.
Page 70, Line On Thursdays at the fair. Page 72, Line 5 The cuarto is a copper coin equivalent to four maravedis. Page 73, Line 3 Escudo — crown. Page 73, Line 5 Ochavo — two maravedis. Page 73, Line 19 The phrases underlined are all common sayings in Spain. These letters were issued with the purpose of discovering articles which had been stolen or maliciously hidden.
Page 74, Line 9 The third of a chaplaincy. All taxes, revehues, etc. As a rule the phrase runs thus: "Fo verdn quiin es Calleja," meaning: you shall see who is the boss here. But in the present case the meaning is: we shall know who was who. Page 75, Line 3 And I hold this to be fate. Y esto lo doy por hado was the usual phrase with which gipsy fortune tellers wound up their forecasts. Page 75, Line 12 The steps are those in front of the Cathedral, which have been celebrated by many authors.
Page 76, Line Norman McColl takes pains to explain that "Cervantes, with Thebes in Egypt in his mind, means 'gipsy-town. Cervantes must have known that town well, for in it he transacted some ofificial business, as recorded in one of the very few documents extant which bear his illustrious signature.