The Goat With Hazel Eyes
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This would mean he has 3 copies of the allele for brown. Breeding these 2 example goats together could produce the following :. Goat eye color is complex due to their being variances in eye color. It should also be noted that some goats have eyes in which only part of the iris is blue this also occurs in dogs. Such animals are most likely heterozygous blue eyed and are considered genetically blue-eyed, even if only the tiniest portion of the iris is blue, and they can still have offspring with completely blue eyes.
Some goats have one blue eye and one brown eye, though this is more rare. Two different colored eyes is controlled by totally different genetic markers so they could produce blue or brown eyed kids, or kids with different colored eyes like themselves. Others assume the brown eyes must be dominant because there are so many more brown eyed goats around.
See Example 3 above. Liver, recessive red. All black areas of the coat become liver-colored. Very rare. A beautiful example of the Brown locus at work. This animal is a heavily-spotted buckskin with all black areas diluted to chocolate brown. Other factors may come into play. This goat is actually a chocolate buckskin. While she has no buckskin patterning visible in this picture, she was obviously buckskin-colored when young. The pattern became difficult to see as she aged, and is practically invisible when she is clipped. If a goat shows an Agouti locus pattern when young, it does carry that pattern, even if it is difficult to see as the goat gets older and invisible when the goat is clipped.
Patterning is often much more obvious on an unclipped goat. The mechanism for this solid coloring is intensification of the phaeomelanic tan areas to dark red along with brown dilution of the black areas. In these cases, the colored areas can be so similar as to obscure the patterns.
This type of patterning can be verified by breeding the animal to a black goat. If normally-patterned buckskins are produced, the animal must carry buckskin. An additional solid pattern is seen where extensive white spotting covers any Agouti locus pattern. If a seemingly-white goat has even one tiny area of brown, red or black pigment, that goat is in reality not white at all. Extensive spotting is probably the most common mechanism of producing goats that look very white, as opposed to cream-tinged goats. Many cream goats may appear very white when clipped, however. Examples of the Interaction between Agouti and Brown Patterns.
The pictures below all exhibit a buckskin-patterned goat, with different intensities of base coloration. All of these animals are buckskins with at least one copy of the A sc allele at the Agouti locus. The depth of color of the phaeomelanic tan areas is controlled by poorly-understood modifier genes separate from the color patterning produced by the Agouti locus. The Agouti locus produces the pattern of phaeomelanic light and eumelanic dark areas on the goat; the modifier genes determine how intensely pigmented those areas are.
As we can see in these examples, the tan areas can range from nearly white to a rich red. The color of the tan areas does not affect the color of the eumelanic black areas, as the coloration of the black areas is controlled by the Brown gene discussed above. The Extension locus. The Extension locus, while very important in coat color in many other mammals, is of relatively little importance in the goat. As mentioned in the chart of color genes in the goat, E extension can affects the expression of both types of pigment, phaeomelanin and eumelanin. This gene is probably unimportant in the Nigerian.
Possible effects of the Extension locus in the goat, in order of dominance. Extension allele. Dominant black. Produces a black goat. Unlike Agouti black, this is dominant. Not documented in the Nigerian but common in the Angora. Normal coloration. Recessive red. Produces a uniformly-red goat with no patterning. Very rare in most breeds, but known in Angoras and Nubians. Not yet documented in the Nigerian. Spotting and other markings. White spotting is produced by entirely different genetic mechanisms than color patterns.
In addition, there are a large number of poorly-defined genes responsible for spotting, and little is known with certainty about their modes of inheritance. A goat can possess several different spotting patterns, and a goat of any color or pattern can display spotting as mentioned above, even a white goat can be spotted! Most Nigerians show at least one spotting pattern.
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Even goats that appear solid-colored may still be spotted- if a goat has even a few white hairs somewhere in its coat, it's spotted. Solid-colored goats are relatively rare in the breed. Spotting also acts to mask a goat's apparent color pattern. It can sometimes be difficult to discern what the goat's pattern would be without the spots! Spotting genes postulated in the goat. Spotting pattern. Mode of inheritance. Random spots, piebald. Probably recessive. Random white spotting.
Can vary from one tiny spot to complete covering. Probably dominant. White belt around the girth of the animal. May be broken. Possibly dominant. Colored head and extremities, some spotting on body. Perhaps a variation of the belting gene. White speckles on muzzle and ears. Small colored spots in otherwise-white areas. Small white spots in otherwise-colored areas. Dark barbari Dalmatian. Colored head and extremities, colored dorsal stripe, body light with numerous colored flecks,.
Can occur over an Agouti locus pattern. Head and forequarters black, rest of body white. Moon spots. Randomly-placed round light tan or white spots. Possibly partial dominant. White hairs intermingled with the base coat color. May occur in small areas or over the entire body. Courtesy of American Goat Society. Courtesy Milky Whey Farm. Blue Eyes in the Nigerian Dwarf. Unlike the case in humans, blue eyes in the goat are dominant.
Nigerians aren't the only blue-eyed breed; blue eyes are also reported in the Angora and fainting goat. Because the blue eyes are dominant, a blue-eyed goat bred to a brown-eyed goat can produce blue-eyed kids. Two brown-eyed goats cannot produce any blue-eyed kids. Let's look more closely at the genetic possibilities for eye color inheritance in goats. Let's call the gene for eye color Bl. Bl is dominant and codes for blue eye color. A goat could then have one of three possible genotypes:. Bl Bl - blue eyed. Bl bl - Blue-eyed and carrying the gene for brown eyes.
Here are the possible matings that could take place, and the percentage of blue and brown-eyed kids expected from these matings:. Parent 1. Parent 2. Blue-eyed kids. Bl Bl. Blue-eyed kids carrying brown. Bl bl. Brown-eyed kids. One possibility that should be noted is that some goats have eyes in which only part of the iris is blue this also occurs in dogs. Such animals are genetically blue-eyed and can have offspring with completely blue eyes. Frasier, like many Goodwood animals, is a black and tan buckskin with white belt and random white spotting. He also has frosting.
Molly is black and white belted with random white spotting, ticking and frosting and some small spots of roaning. His ancestors were buckskin and red and white. One, Goodwood Zippy Mariri, was mahogany in color and may have carried the A m allele. I have been unable to find a clear enough picture of her to confirm if she was a true mahogany red and black hairs intermixed or just a very dark red.
His dam was Goodwood Calliope, a buckskin with only buckskins and black animals close up in the pedigree. Frasier thus has at least one allele at the Agouti locus for the buckskin pattern, A sc. This could have come from either parent. What is his other allele? It isn't for the dark red pattern of his father, as that dark red pattern is the dominant A wt. If Frasier had inherited it, he would be solid red or tan and the buckskin pattern wouldn't show.
The other likely possibilities are that it is buckskin from either parent , black from the maternal side and there is an off chance that it could be mahogany from the maternal side. It is also likely that he carries some modifier genes to produce the dark red color. He has minimal tan areas, but those he does have are fairly bright in color.
Molly is much simpler- she's black, so both copies of her Agouti allele are A a. Both animals are spotted with random white, thus both should carry two copies of the recessive white spotting gene. Both animals are also belted and frosted, so carry at least one copy each of these dominant genes. So what do I expect in their offspring, and what will this tell me?
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First of all, all of the kids should have some white spotting, and it's likely that they will be belted and frosted as well. This is because both parents carry two copies of the recessive spotting gene, so every kid will inherit two copies of that gene as well. Both parents carry at least one gene for frosting and for belting, and both genes are assumed to be dominant, so they will show up even if only one copy gets passed on.
The kids may be ticked as well, but ticking often only shows with age, so we may not notice it in the kids. If I get any black and white kids, then Frasier's second Agouti allele is for black. Black is all Molly carries, so it's all she can pass on. Since black is recessive, a black kid would need two copies of the allele to be black, and that second copy would have to come from Frasier.
If I get any pattern other than buckskin, then that pattern is what's on Frasier's second Agouti allele. Note the star spotting pattern. Note that she does have a white belt. It is difficult to tell from this picture if she has frosting. In two matings, we got three black and white kids and one buckskin. All kids had a white star. Two had white belting. All had some degree of frosting. One had roaning. So we now know that Frasier caries the A a Agouti locus allele for black. The buckskin kid is interesting because of her dark red coloration, somewhat similar to her paternal grandfather.
As mentioned earlier, it is possible that modifier genes are responsible for the intensity of the red coloration. What are the practical implications of all of this? If bred to a black or chocolate animal, these patterns may be expressed in the offspring. I am waiting for clarification on this color from Phil Sponenberg. It appears to be a darker tan overlay over lighter tan or white, with light facial striping and dark stripes on the legs.
This is similar to sable, with the addition of dark head markings, martingale, and partial dorsal stripe. Similar to badgerface, but with more black on chest, legs, and head, leaving only the sides tan. Very similar to buckskin, but lacks the facial markings. The dark color on the cape and rear legs is more extensive. Agouti grey. The most common pattern in pygmy goats, grey with a dark martingale and dorsal stripe and dark legs. Striped lightbelly. Intermediate between Swiss markings and light belly.
This pattern has facial striping like the Swiss marked pattern, plus the light belly of the light belly pattern. There are dark markings on the front of the legs, but they are not the more complicated striping of the light belly pattern. White, tan and red Remember that all of these are dominant at the Agouti locus, and that the intensity of color is due to modifier genes. Swiss marked Courtesy of Sugar Creek Nigerians. Light belly black and tan Courtesy of Enchanted Hill Nigerians.
This animal is a light tan with black markings. This animal is also light tan, but the black markings are replaced by deep chocolate. This is due to the action of the Brown gene B d mentioned above, which turns all black areas of the coat to dark chocolate brown. Note that again the tan areas of the coat are unaffected. This animal is a darker tan with lighter chocolate brown markings produced by the B l gene.
Again, only the black coat areas are affected by this gene. This is an example of how extensive white spotting can mask Agouti locus patterns. This is the same animal as the first animal in this chart, with extensive white spotting. It is genetically just as much a buckskin as the first animal, as the white spotting is controlled by completely separate genes. Light barbari Dalmatian. Probably recessive, but may be dominant in the Nigerian. Colored head and extremities, colored dorsal stripe, body light with some colored flecks,.
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Sponenberg feels that this is a fairly common pattern in Nigerians. He describes the Nigerian pattern as "dark legs, white sides, dark backs, small spots on the sides, and then dark ears, eyes, and a funny patch on the top of the nose. White star on top of head, often along with white tip on tail. Very common almost universal! This pattern is named after the Algarve goat of Portugal.
It resembles a dalmatian pattern, but the edges of the white spots are more ragged. Ticked Courtesy of American Goat Society. Star Courtesy Milky Whey Farm. Moon spots Courtesy of American Goat Society. Roan Courtesy of American Goat Society. Blue-eyed kids Bl Bl. Blue-eyed kids carrying brown Bl bl. Brown-eyed kids bl bl. Goodwood KW Frasier.